- In these pages I present a previously unnoticed referent for Milton's phoenix
simile in Samson Agonistes: namely, Job 29:18 and the line of interpretation
of that verse which emerged most vividly in Juan de Pineda's two volume Commentariorum
in Iob, first published in 1598-1602 in Seville and very frequently reprinted
in the first third of the seventeenth century.
It is surprising that this referent has not been identified before by Milton's
editors since Joban parallelisms have a prominent role in Samson Agonistes
and since well into the eighteenth century the Joban phoenix -- located in
Job 29:18 -- was still being presented as a Christological center of attention
in the symbolism of the book of Job as a whole. In fact, right from the beginning
of the seventeenth century Pineda's Commentariorum in Iob made the
Joban phoenix unforgettable with a striking hermeneutic illustration. I suggest that without awareness of this topos
and its illustration we miss an integral, even powerfully integrating, representational
element of Samson Agonistes. Indeed, by missing Milton's Joban reference
in the phoenix simile, and by assuming that his intended resonance here is
largely pagan and/or secular, we have left the door open to considerable distortion
of some of the play's largest meanings.
- I begin with some contextualization of what is at stake here for Milton
criticism. To a great extent the last thirty years of interpretation of Samson
Agonistes have been polarized between the views represented, on the one
hand, by Mary Ann Radzinowicz, who sees the Samson of this work as Milton's
representation of growth toward the highest ideals of humanity, and, on the
other hand, by Joseph Wittreich, who sees Samson as a figure whose moral and
spiritual stature Milton systematically subverts.
In Wittreich's view a prime example of such subversion is the phoenix simile,
which, if it is subversive, must indeed be devastatingly "compromising
of Samson's heroism," since without doubt the simile marks the rhetorical
climax of the entire play. A large, perhaps even central part of Wittreich's
claim for Milton's subversive intention in the phoenix simile is the negative
historical claim that "except where there is textual corruption"
(i.e., where David is mistakenly thought to invoke the phoenix, when he meant
a palm tree) the phoenix "has no place in the Bible" -- by which
Wittreich must mean that in the views of respected commentators the phoenix
was never thought to have a place in the Bible. Building on the assumption
that the phoenix was thought of as "something which does not exist, which
has no reality to figure forth," he reasons (among other things) that
"the irony inherent in the phoenix symbol" is that it is "a
fable, a fiction, not an embodiment of reality or truth, neither an oracle
of personal redemption nor of cultural renewal." What is left of truth
in the phoenix image, he says, is a "regression … from phoenix back again
to worm-serpent with wings … the noxious worm in the path of Jesus [in Paradise
Regained] when his temptations commence."
- Negative historical claims -- that is, about what did not exist or cannot
be found -- are necessarily perilous. The evidence presented below shows positively
that the phoenix was by one respected tradition of interpretation, and especially
by one of the most authoritative and most frequently reprinted seventeenth-century
commentators on Job, believed to have a revered place (that was certainly
not a matter of textual corruption) in the Bible itself. Rather, by these
interpreters the Joban phoenix was specifically represented both as a symbol
of personal redemption and as an embodiment of cultural renewal. Wittreich
has recently suggested that "Samson Agonistes is the major site
of contestation within Milton studies, as well as a scene of instruction from
which a new Milton criticism, once born, may take direction."
If that turns out to be the case it is unlikely that it will occur on the
site of the phoenix of Samson Agonistes. Instead, we can begin to revive
on that topos some of the older views once confidently held about Milton's
affirmations of Samson's spiritual growth and redemption.
Wittreich's view of the phoenix of Samson Agonistes
is summed up in the following statement: "This bird of paradise is
here, not to mark the recovery of paradise but yet another loss of it; not
to elide Samson and Christ but, instead, to sort the slayer of men and their
savior into two very different traditions."
This view represents, or promotes, a splitting apart of the hybridization
of Christian tradition with the revival of deep appreciation -- based on
solid learning -- of other traditions. This hybridization of current with
revived traditions, of course, is what gave the Renaissance its name, hence
the Christian Humanism that rediscovered Greco-Roman learning and the Christian
Hebraism that rediscovered Hebraic learning. Milton's poetry, to say the
least, has usually been thought to be inspired by these revivals and these
hybridizations, which, indeed, have been regarded by many as a primary source
of the intellectual creativity of the Renaissance in general.
I recall these perspectives here to keep them available for reflection when
evidence is presented, but I do not require prior assent to any of them
in order to demonstrate the particular manifestation of cultural hybridization
that is my present subject. The Joban phoenix, both in its interpretive
tradition and in Milton's use of it, itself concretely represents the vitality
of this cultural hybridization.
- I propose that Milton's climactic emplacement of the Joban phoenix in Samson
Agonistes both reenforces and derives strength from the Joban patterns
and Joban ideals that Radzinowicz has highlighted in the Christian-Hebraic-Greek
fabric of Milton's tragedy. Radzinowicz writes,
Job's … question, "What is man, that thou shouldest magnify
him? And that thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every
moment," is the question of the first choral stasimon in Samson
Agonistes; his conclusion is likewise their conclusion. … Milton was
thinking profoundly about the meaning of the Book of Job … after the Restoration.
His consideration of that book issued into the double ethical insights of
Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes. … The stories of Job
and of Samson … lead toward full moral awareness; their acts scarcely change.
… Job and Samson … are types of the man of faith. … Milton defined the relationship
between freedom and obedience, or liberty and service, and showed that Samson
learns like Job to obey the God whom he has learned to understand. … Samson's
behavior at the close of the play is unconstrained and free because it arises
from his most rational inner prompting.
Here is the extended phoenix simile in Samson Agonistes:
Semichorus. But he though blind of sight,
Despis'd and thought extinguish't quite,
With inward eyes illuminated
His fiery virtue rous'd
From under ashes into sudden flame,
And as an ev'ning Dragon came,
Assailant on the perched roosts,
And nests in order rang'd
Of tame villatic Fowl; but as an Eagle
His cloudless thunder bolted on thir heads.
So virtue giv'n for lost,
Deprest, and overthrown, as seem'd,
Like that self-begott'n bird
In the Arabian woods embost,
That no second knows nor third,
And lay erewhile a Holocaust,
From out her ashy womb now teem'd,
Revives, reflourishes, then vigorous most
When most unactive deem'd,
And though her body die, her fame survives,
A secular bird ages of lives. (ll. 1687-1707)
- In the second half of the twentieth century a number of generations of
Milton's readers grew up on the image of the phoenix from Joachim Camerarius's
Symbolorum ac Emblematum. Politicorum Centuriae Quatuor (Mainz, 1697;
first published 1596) that Merritt Y. Hughes prefixed to Samson Agonistes
in his edition of Milton's poetry and prose.
While Camerarius does mention Christological similitudes in the phoenix, he
does, indeed, present it mainly as a pagan, not a biblical image.
- Far more closely relevant to Milton's play is the flourishing of Christian
Hebraist interpretations of Job 29:18 that brought the Joban phoenix to life
for Christian readers of the seventeenth century.
At the heart of these interpretations is the proliferation of richly complementary
meanings that turn upon three translations of the word chol -- as phoenix,
palm tree, or sand -- in Job 29:18. The Hebrew verse
is rendered in the AV as
Then I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my
days as the sand [chol]
and in the Douay-Rheims as
And I said: I shall die in my nest, and as a palm tree [chol]
shall multiply my days.
The Jewish commentator, Rashi (well known by Christian commentators and himself
working from a long line of Jewish interpretation), had identified the chol
as the phoenix: “This is a bird whose name is chol, upon which the
punishment of death was not decreed because it did not taste of the Tree of
Knowledge. At the end of a thousand years it renews itself and returns to
- For interpretation of Job 29:18 in Milton's time what was most important,
in addition to the identification of Hebrew chol with the phoenix,
were the translations of the Hebrew word in the Septuagint and the Vulgate.
Jerome rendered the Septuagint phoinikos -- which, in turn, could be
taken to mean either phoenix or palm tree -- as palma:
The Christian Hebraist commentators realized that the translations sand
as well as palm tree were by themselves clearly inadequate not only
to the preceding phrase "in my nest" in verse 29:18 itself but also
to 19:25-26 which strongly imply something like the reborn phoenix:
dicebamque in nidulo meo moriar et sicut palma [chol] multiplicabo
For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand
at the latter day upon the earth [literally dust]:
AV (where the words in italics were added to indicate interpolations)
And though after my skin worms destroy this body,
yet in my flesh shall I see God.
- By reviving Rashi's interpretation of chol as phoenix and, correlatively,
by recalling the reading of the Septuagint phoinikos as phoenix, which
Jerome had neglected, the Christian Hebraists generated the possibilities
of a multiple and interactive interpretation of the verse. I would emphasize
that what characterizes the high points of Christian Hebraist interpretation
is precisely the avoidance of insistence on any one interpretation and the
compounding, instead, of different interpretive traditions, thus opening up
multiplex significations. As an exemplary instance of such hermeneutics, the
multi-layered and deeply multi-cultural interpretation of the Joban phoenix
is itself a manifold emblem of the rebirth that Milton represents in the Christian-Hebraic-Greek
Samson Agonistes as a whole.
- Perspective on the prominence of the Joban phoenix in Milton's era is conveniently
provided by the most respected Job commentary of the early eighteenth century,
Albrecht Schultens's Liber Jobi (Leiden, 1737). As authority for finding
the phoenix in the word chol of Job 29:18, Schultens draws upon a large
number of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Christian Hebraists -- including
Drusius, Grotius, Pineda, and Vatablus -- who, as Schultens notes, directly
or indirectly revived the commentary of "Salomon" (=Rabbi
Shlomo/Solomon Yitzhaki=Rashi). In addition Schultens spectacularly
foregrounds the centrality of this topos by presenting an identical illustration
of it on the title pages of both volumes of his commentary. Here is the title
page of volume two, together with an enlargement of the illustration which
contains, in its inscription, the references to the biblical verses upon which
the Joban phoenix revives -- and dies and is reborn: "Job. 29 18.19
/ goali chai [= my redeemer liveth, Job 19:25] / Job. 19:25":
In this interpretation the phoenix is necessarily contiguous with, or the
counterpart of, the diuturnal palm tree because of Job 29:19, a verse which
Schultens's inscription also specifies:
Both the phoenix and the palm tree have years as innumerable as the sand.
The phoenix and palm represented here are Job's hope for personal redemption.
Like the living Redeemer, who is reborn and brings the promise of redemption,
the phoenix dies but is eternally reborn.
My root was spread out by the waters, and the dew lay all night upon
- For us it is of particular interest that the Joban phoenix emerged brilliantly
in Milton's own time. With Schultens's magisterial perspective on the interpretations
of two centuries of his predecessors he was certainly not proposing something
eccentric in placing the Joban phoenix on his title pages. He could count
on knowledgeable readers to recognize that he was only repeating the foregrounding
of the Joban phoenix in the extraordinarily vivid crystallization of this
interpretation, with its illustration, in what was after all one of the best
known Job commentaries of the early seventeenth century, Pineda's Commentariorum
in Iob. Schultens directly reproduces the emphasis on personal redemption
that characterizes Pineda's approach.
In expressing that emphasis, Pineda's Commentariorum includes a full
page illustration highlighting the Joban phoenix and the palm tree on either
side of a Joban monument. Here is that illustration from the 1612 edition,
together with an enlargement of the top half of the page:
- In this illustration, which concludes Pineda's entire Commentariorum,
we see how his interpretation of Job 29:18 leaps up, exactly and exactingly,
as hybridization: the Hebraic phoenix ("post R. Salomonem … quod sequuntur
Tygurina et Caietanus … de quo diximus supra cap. 19. vers. 25") rises
from the nest of the Vulgate Latin "in nidulo meo" while facing
the palm tree of the Septuagint Greek "
These things are obvious to those who do what the monument itself
directs: "HOSPES ASTA, ET PELLEGE" -- "FRIEND STAND NEAR, AND
The phoinikos as bird and as palm tree are thus represented as complementary
elements of the same diuturnal spirit which is as much that of Christ the
redeemer as of the Job who (in the language of the monument) is both "patient"
- It seems possible that Milton is following other details of this illustration,
or its tradition, when he has Manoa say,
there will I build him
In this context of describing the monument, "Legend" may be Milton's
term not principally for the many stories concerning Samson (the OED
gives the sense of stories for Milton's usage in this verse) but rather, more
technically and precisely, for the inscription on the monument itself; here
"copious" would then mean plentiful in language (for this sense
the OED instances Marvell in 1672). In the illustration of the Joban
monument in Pineda's Commentariorum the legend is indeed densely copious
in just this way. In fact,
this heavily inscribed stone monument is a fulfillment of Job's wish (cried
out just before he says, "For I know that my redeemer liveth"):
"Oh that my words were now written! … that they were graven with an iron
pen and lead in the rock for ever!" (Job 19:23-24). The resemblance between
the monuments in the Commentariorum illustration and in Milton's verses
may extend, as well, to the "Laurel ever green, and branching Palm,"
which Manoa says he will plant around the monument of Samson. The illustration
in Pineda shows (beside the monument of Job) the branching palm together with
shrubs of evergreen laurel growing at the base of the palm.
A Monument and plant it round with shade
Of Laurel ever green, and branching Palm,
With all his Trophies hung, and Acts enroll'd
In copious Legend.
- On the unnumbered page accompanying the illustration, Pineda explains the
relation of the Joban monument to the Joban phoenix and palm. He describes
the Joban pyramid as a "Monumentum vero non solum ad viri sanctissimi,
sed ad Resurrectionis cum Redemptore memoriam … vt qui olim resurrecturus
esset cum Ipso Christo Iesu resurgente, vt diximus cap 19.vers. 25.26."
He concludes with the remark that the monument is therefore appropriately
joined to the representation, based on 29:18, of the "duobus Symbolis,
tum Resurrectionis, tum vitae foelicissimae, ac diuturnae… videlicet Phoenicis
Arabicae, ex se ipsa reuiuiscentit; & Palmae Syriacae, suo trunco annos
innumeros numerantis, quae nos accurate exposuimus, super id versicul.18."
Pineda's placement of his account of this illustration as the conclusion of
his entire commentary is thus his ultimate identification of the Joban phoenix
specifically as a symbol of Christian, personal redemption. This was the redemption
that he, and his tradition of interpretation, saw coming back to life within
the compound figurations of Job 29:18.
- Placed within its line of interpretation, Pineda's intellectually rich,
visually spectacular, and widely available representation of the Joban phoenix
suggests that Milton would have expected his readers to understand the placement
of the phoenix simile as the climax of Samson's personal redemption in Samson
Agonistes. This is to say that Milton's Joban phoenix is his logical
continuation and crowning of the parallelism between Job and Samson, as well
as between Christ and Samson, not only in Samson Agonistes
but in the 1671 volume as a whole.
I presented the core of these
materials in May 2005 at the Ben-Gurion University conference on "Religious
Cultures in the Early Modern Period" organized by Chanita Goodblatt. I
am grateful to Lawrence Besserman, Noam Flinker, Assa Gibouri, William Kolbrenner,
Albert Labriola, and Jason Rosenblatt for their comments on that occasion. The
research for this article was supported by a Fellowship from the National Endowment
for the Humanities.
Besides the 1598-1602
Seville edition of Pineda's Commentariorum in Iob
there were (at least)
editions of one or both volumes in 1600 (Cologne), 1602-04 (Venice), 1603-1605
(Cologne), 1608 (Venice), 1612 (Antwerp), 1613-14 (Cologne), and three separate
editions in 1631 (all in Paris, by three different printers), in addition to
editions at the end of the century. For help in locating these editions of Pineda's
, and/or obtaining illustrations from them, I wish to thank
Anna Agostini of the Biblioteca Capitolare Fabroniana, Pistoia, Massimo Bernabò
of the University of Siena, Sabine Volk-Birke, Dieter Lasske, and Melinda Palmer
of the University of Halle, Jan Martin of Trinity College, Oxford, Jodie Lister
of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, Renana Shvil-Tobi of the Jewish Theological
Seminary, New York, Father Pawel Trzopek of the Bibliothèque Dominicains
St. Etienne de l'Ecole Biblique, Jerusalem, and Christian Hogrefe of the Herzog
August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel. Figure 2 below, from Pineda's Commentariorum
, is reproduced by permission of the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel.
In all the editions that I have seen, the illustration, though drawn by many
different artists, adheres strictly to the same details, down to minutiae.
The books in
which their views are principally presented are Radzinowicz's Toward Samson
Agonistes: The Growth of Milton's Mind
(Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1978) and Wittreich's Interpreting Samson Agonistes
Princeton University Press, 1986). Wittreich's interpretation of the phoenix
simile appears in his Shifting Contexts: Reinterpreting Samson Agonistes
(Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2002), pp. 261-68, 278-82.
, pp. 261-67. In fairness to Wittreich one should note
that, as he repeatedly says (e.g., pp. 278, 280-81), he is following New Historicist
and Deconstructionist models in deconstructing the image of the phoenix and
the figure of Samson in Samson Agonistes
. Yet Wittreich does not deconstruct
(from the same volume of 1671) the image of Christ in Paradise Regained
The theoretical basis for selective deconstruction is mysterious. In passing
it is worth commenting on a related matter: Wittreich, Shifting Contexts
p. 265 and n., asserts that the phoenix simile is built on "traditions
and connotations" that are "secular, not sacred" and fixes the
outer limit of possible biblical authority for the phoenix in The First
Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians
, which is indeed of marginal significance
for the tradition of phoenix interpretation. Yet we should note that Clement,
too, offers a connection between the phoenix and Job, though only by analogy
and not in relation to Job 29:18. See The Two Epistles to the Corinthians
trans. by J. B. Lightfoot (London: Macmillan, 1869), xxv-xxvi.
 Altering Eyes:
New Perspectives on Samson Agonistes
, ed. Mark R. Kelley and Joseph Wittreich
(Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2002), p. 11.
, p. 263.
We can restore
appreciation of Renaissance hybridization by viewing it from the perspective
of recent theoretical discourses such as Lisa Lowe's account of hybridization
as an antidote to cultural hegemony in her "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity:
Marking Asian-American Differences," in Diaspora
, 1 (1991): 24-44.
Toward Samson Agonsites
, pp. 254-62; see also pp. 231-35, where Radzinowicz
refers to the Joban framework that Barbara Lewalski demonstrated in Paradise
in Milton's Brief Epic
(Providence: Brown University Press,
1966), especially pp. 10-36.
I cite Milton's
verse from The Complete Poems and Major Prose of John Milton
, ed. Merritt
Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey Press, 1957), p. 548. In the context of the present
discussion it is perhaps worth pointing out that, of course, the word secular
in line 1707 does not have its modern sense of that which is in opposition with
sacred, but rather -- and here even to the contrary -- "living or lasting
for an age or ages" (OED 6, for which Milton's usage here is cited), that
is, miraculously enduring "ages of lives."
Poems and Major Prose of John Milton
, ed. Hughes, p. 548. For the principal
sources of Milton's phoenix simile in Samson Agonistes
that have been
noted heretofore, see John Milton, Complete Shorter Poems
, ed. John Carey,
second edition (London: Longman, 1997) and Anthony Low, "The Phoenix and
the Sun in Samson Agonistes
." Milton Studies
, 14 (1980),
Symbola et Emblemata (Nürnberg 1590 bis 1604)
, facsimile reprint
ed. Wolfgang Harms and Ulla-Britta Kuechen (Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-
u.Verlagsanstalt, 1986). Camerarius surveys the Christological interpretations
of the phoenix (without any mention of Job) on page 101vo
"Phoenix on the Top of the Palm Tree: Multiple Interpretations of Job 29:18,"
3, February 8, 2005 (http://www.studiolum.com/en/silva5.htm
no page or paragraph numbers) has sketched various aspects of these interpretations
but he does not describe the way in which -- most significantly, in my view
-- diverse elements were frequently brought together, and left merely contiguous,
to remarkable effect. Correlative to this omission, with regard to Pineda's
Commentariorum in Job
Sajo strangely enough takes no notice of the phoenix-palm-pyramid
illustration of the seventeenth-century editions and instead instances the title
page illustration of the 1733 edition which in fact does not show a phoenix
but rather (in accordance with the printer's caption, "Sub signo Gryphi")
a gryphon, in other words a creature half eagle and half lion. To Sajo's canvassing
of influential continental commentaries that discuss the Joban phoenix we should
add that in Milton's place and time there certainly was explicit awareness of
these commentaries, as we see in Sir Thomas Browne's sanctioning of the phoenix
reading of Job 29:18 in Pseudodoxia Epidemica
(1646; 6th ed., London,
1672), III:xii, pp. 144-149 and Joseph Caryl's insistence (despite those commentaries)
on the AV translation of chol
as sand, in An Exposition with Practicall
Observations continued upon the twenty-seventh, the twenty-eighth, and twenty-ninth
chapters of the Booke of Job
(London, 1657), pp. 567-568.
As both Pineda
and Schultens indicate, Rashi's commentaries on individual verses were cited,
or drawn upon, with great frequency. A Latin translation of his commentary on
Job is contained in R. Salomonis Jarchi, Rashi dicti, commentarius Hebraicus,
in Prophetas maiores et minores, ut et Hiobum et Psalmos, Latine versus, cum
duobus vetustissimis codicibus mstis membranaceis collatus
, trans. and ed.
Johann Friedrich Breithaupt
(Gotha, 1713). I have here translated literally
from the Hebrew.
Schultens's Liber Jobi
are still widely available in libraries throughout
Europe. Figure 1, from this commentary, is reproduced by courtesy of The Library
of The Jewish Theological Seminary, New York.
"Paraphrasis" of 29:18 his way (part of which Sajo cites) of associating
the phoenix even with an intimately personal redemption is worth citing at some
length: "Haec vero tanta mei populi pax, atque felicitas, non solum aliis
vitam efficiebat iucundissimam, sed mihi etiam, cui cuncti bene, ac feliciter
precabantur, felicem pollicebatur senectutem, tranquillam denique, nec non iucundissimam
mortem; et, quod raro evincere solet, sperabam fore, ut sine ulla felicitatis
vicissitudine, omnes longissimae vitae partes, aetatesque percurrerem: tandemque
nulla vitae difficultate impedirer, sed leniter, nullo aegritudinis, dolorisve
sensu prae senio deficirem, et liberis meis stipatus, domi meae, in lecto meo,
in illo ipso arcis praecelso loco, tamquam in sublimi nido, extremum spiritum
edens, e vivis evolarem. * [et sicut palma multiplicabo dies
Firma quoque spe sustentabar fore, ut non minus diuturnam vitam ducerem, quam
phoenix, cuius est vita longissima; aut quam palma, in cuius trunco multi anni
ex decidentibus annuatim ramis numerari possunt." "Indeed this so
very great peace and happiness of my people rendered not only the lives of other
people most pleasant, but also gave me, for whom everyone prayed for well being
and happiness, the promise of a happy and quiet old age and also of a pleasant
death; and, a thing that rarely happens, I hoped that I shall pass through all
parts and ages of a very long life without vicissitudes: and finally I shall
not be hindered by hardship, but softly, without ill-health or pain, I shall
depart before senility, and breathe my last and fly away from among the living
surrounded by my children [disciples, students], in my home, in my bed, in this
very lofty citadel, as if in a nest high up. [and as the palm I shall multiply
] And I shall also be sustained by the hope, that I shall not pass
a life less long than that of the phoenix, whose life is the longest; or the
palm-tree, on whose trunk it is possible to count the many years by the annually
dropping branches" (from a translation by Joseph Geiger).
of pages in the seventeenth-century editions of the Commentariorum in Iob
varies, depending on whether it is continuous between volumes one and two. In
the 1612 edition the illustration appears, without page number, after page 1206.
indirectly this recalls the famous ancient epitaph on a woman named Claudia.
See "Epitaph of Claudia" (anonymous (150 B.C. [?]) in The Oxford
Book of Latin Verse
, ed. Heathcote William Garrod (Oxford: Oxford University
sweet Lyric Song" which completes line 1737 presumably does not belong
to the description of the monument itself but is imagined as being performed
beside the monument, as on the "feastful days" when the young will
"visit his Tomb" (1741-42).
emphasis on a personal trajectory of suffering (and of God's initial turning
away from the sufferer) that leads to personal redemption, it is not surprising
that Pineda identified at least part of Samson's story with Job's. Pineda glosses
Job 18:7 with Judges 16:20-21.
 Here the evergreen
laurel is specifically part of the Joban symbolism of rebirth: mentioned in
verse 42:14 and inscribed on the monument, "Cassia," Job's second,
new-born daughter, is named for the kezia / cassia laurel (sometimes
identified as the cassia cinnamon).
Browne, Sir Thomas. Pseudodoxia Epidemica. London, 1646.
6th ed., 1672.
Camerarius, Joachim. Symbola et Emblemata (Nürnberg 1590
bis 1604), facsimile reprint ed. Wolfgang Harms and Ulla-Britta Kuechen.
Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- u.Verlagsanstalt, 1986.
Caryl, Joseph. An Exposition with Practicall Observations
continued upon the twenty-seventh, the twenty-eighth, and twenty-ninth chapters
of the Booke of Job. London, 1657.
Clement (of Rome). The Two Epistles to the Corinthians.
Trans. J. B. Lightfoot. London: Macmillan, 1869.
Garrod, Heathcote William, ed. The Oxford Book
of Latin Verse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1912.
Kelley, Mark R. and Joseph Wittreich, eds. Altering Eyes:
New Perspectives on Samson Agonistes. Newark: University of Delaware
Lewalski, Barbara. Milton's Brief Epic. Providence:
Brown University Press, 1966.
Low, Anthony. "The Phoenix and the Sun in Samson
Agonistes." Milton Studies, 14 (1980): 219-31.
Lowe, Lisa. "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity: Marking
Asian-American Differences." Diaspora, 1 (1991): 24-44.
Milton, John. The Complete Poems and Major Prose of John
Milton, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes. New York: Odyssey Press, 1957.
--------------. Complete Shorter Poems, ed. John Carey.
London: Longman, 1997.
Pineda, Juan de. Commentariorum in Iob. Seville, 1598-1602;
Radzinowicz, Mary Ann. Toward Samson Agonsites:
The Growth of Milton's Mind. Princeton: Princeton University
Rashi. R. Salomonis Jarchi, Rashi dicti, commentarius Hebraicus,
in Prophetas maiores et minores, ut et Hiobum et Psalmos, Latine versus,
cum duobus vetustissimis codicibus mstis membranaceis collatus, trans.
and ed. Johann Friedrich Breithaupt. Gotha, 1713.
Sajo, George. "Phoenix on the Top of the Palm Tree: Multiple
Interpretations of Job 29:18," Silva
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Forum may be sent to the Editor at M.Steggle@shu.ac.uk.
Matthew Steggle (Editor, EMLS).