Preface: Calendar of State Papers (Domestic Series) of The Reign of Elizabeth, 1581–1590, 1591–1594, 1601–1603, with Addenda 1547–1565
Albert Rolls. "Preface: Calendar of State Papers (Domestic Series) of The Reign of Elizabeth, 1581–1590, 1591–1594, 1601–1603, with Addenda 1547–1565". Early Modern Literary Studies 13.3 (January, 2008) 5.1-6<URL: http://purl.oclc.org/emls/13-3/rollcale.htm>.
Adventures on their voyage from Plymouth to the Road of Cadiz, where they sunk 33 ships preparing for England; burnt one of 1,500 tons belonging to the Marquis of Santa Cruce, and brought away four laden with provisions. Great preparations made by King Philip for the invasion of England. Intends, by God’s help, to intercept their supplies. (406-07)Other entries reveal some of what happened on the local level in various English counties, particularly during June 1588 (see 495–96). Together, the records concerning the response to Spain’s invasion plans give an overview of what went on in England during the period leading up to the launching of the Spanish Armada.
He could not find in his heart to pray for her [Elizabeth], as she was an atheist, and a maintainer of atheism, and therefore he would not come into the realm until her death.. . . He said that Her Majesty had a daughter, which should be or was affianced unto the Prince of Condé, to succeed after her decease; also that Her Majesty had been, of long time past, married to Lord Chancellor Hatton had not Mrs. Ratcliffe hindered it. (1601–603, 23–24)The letter goes on to suggest that Elizabeth had had another daughter and had ordered the midwife who had delivered the child to throw her into the fire. The report is obviously calumnious, the blather of a disgruntled subject. Broughton, as Craig Rustici explains, “after dedicating A Concent of Scripture  to the queen and presenting her with a copy of that text . . . had become bitterly disappointed with Elizabeth and with her seeming indifference toward his labors.”  Nonetheless, Broughton’s image of the queen remains significant, allowing us to see a representation of her that is not simply unofficial but also that would likely never have found itself into print.
Among the most remarkable papers in the present volume are the intelligence letters written by or to Tho[mas] Phelippes, the decipherer. . . . Part of his correspondence he made a merit of communicating to the Government, but the more important portion consists of his private papers. . . . These are drafts of letters written by him to persons abroad, or by him for other persons, giving such minute details of the proceedings at Court as it was easy for him, through his acquaintance with the Earl of Essex and Sir Bob. Cecil, to obtain. (see pp. 21, 38, 47, 64, 74, 97, 117, 309, 314, 328, 341, 353, 358, 360, 369, 419)Minutiae, after all, is mostly what governing is about, and even the most powerful of figures find themselves mired in it.Thus William Cecil, Lord Burghley and John Fortescue—a second cousin of Elizabeth and her tutor during Mary’s reign—found themselves, in July of 1591, writing to Richard Young, John Robinson, and Phelippes to complain about the lack of custom taxes being collected.
Great quantities of cloths, kersies &c., are weekly conveyed overland to divers ports, and thence exported, and small customs paid. Her Majesty, greatly misliking such abuses, as an hindrance to her revenues, has directed the writers to frame orders for remedy thereof. . . . They [Young, Robinson, and Phelippes] are to appoint persons to take accounts of such goods, and certify them weekly, with power, if any doubts arise, to open the goods. They are also to charge the searcher in London that no cloth nor kersey is to pass by water, without a just entry thereof, and a warrant granted. As such goods are secretly conveyed away in waggons and carts, without paying duties, they are to stay all those having them, until the owners thereof put in bonds to bring a certificate within one month, and pay the duties. . . . All persons found unwilling or negligent in this service are to be stayed, together with their goods, and brought before the writers, to answer their contempt. (68–69)
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 Notes and Queries 4th Series, Volume 7 (February 25, 1871), 180.
 Law and Government Under the Tudors: Essays Presented to Sir Geoffrey Elton, Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Cambridge on the Occasion of His Retirement, ed. Claire Cross et. al. (Cambridge, 1988), 163-76.