Works Cited and Further Reading




Works by Nathaniel Richards


Richards, Nathaniel (1640) The Tragedy of Messallina, The Roman Emperesse online at


Richards, Nathaniel (1640) The Tragedy of Messallina, The Roman Emperesse (ed. and intro) Skemp, A.R. (1910) London: David Nutt




Nathaniel Richards


Baker, David E. (1782, 1985) Biographia Dramatica London: Reprint Services Corporation


Bentley, Gerald Eades (1956) Nathanael Richards pp. 999-1004 in The Jacobean and Caroline Stage Vol V: Plays and Playwrights  London: Oxford University Press


Bradford, Alan T. (1983) Nathanael Richards, Jacobean Playgoer pp. 63-78 in John Donne Journal: Studies in the Age of John Donne 2/2 Raleigh, NC: John Donne Society


Forker, Charles R. (1976) Nathanael Richards, 'Messalina' and 'The Duchess of Malfi' pp. 221-222 in Notes and Queries for Readers and Writers, Collectors and Librarians 23 London: Notes and Queries   


Moore Smith, Prof. G.C. (1909) Nathanael Richards, Dramatist pp. 461-2 in Notes and Queries for Readers and Writers, Collectors and Librarians 11 Tenth Series London: Notes and Queries




Roman History and the Roman Play


Astington, John H. (1991) The Origins of the 'Roxana' and 'Messalina' Illustrations pp. 149-69 in Shakespeare Survey 43 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Cantor, Paul A. (1976) Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire London: Cornell University Press


Charney, Maurice (1968, 1961) Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of Imagery in the Drama Cambridge: Harvard University Press 


Cunliffe, John W. (1893, 1965) The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy Hamden, Conneticut: Archon Books


Graves, Robert (1976, 1934) I, Claudius Middlesex: Penguin Books


Graves, Robert (1977, 1934) Claudius the God and His Wife Messalina Middlesex: Penguin Books


Juvenal (1967 edition) The Sixteen Satires (trans. Green, Peter) Middlesex: Penguin


Miles, Geoffrey (1996) Shakespeare and the Constant Romans Oxford: Clarendon Press


Miola, Robert S. (1983) Shakespeare's Rome Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Oleck, Jack (1967, 1959 & 1960) Messalina: A Magnificent Novel of the Most Wicked Woman in History London: Corgi


Ronan, Clifford (1995) ‘Antike Roman’: Power Symbology and the Roman Play in Early Modern England, 1585-1635 Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press


Scullard, H. H. and Cary, M. (1935) A History of Rome London: Macmillan Press


Scullard, H. H. (1959, 1982) The Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome 133 BC to AD 68, Fifth Edition London and New York: Routledge


Slavitt, David R. and Bovie, Palmer (eds.) (1992) Seneca: The Tragedies Volume I  London: The John Hopkins University Press


Suetonius (1997 edition) Lives of the Twelve Caesars (trans. Bird, H.M.) Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. 


Tacitus (1989 edition) The Annals of Imperial Rome (trans. Grant, Michael) London: Penguin Books




The I, Claudius Project, online at,CLAUDIUS/


Information on the television series I, Claudius and the history of the Roman Empire







Astington, John H. (1991) The 'Messalina' Stage and Salisbury Court Plays pp. 141-156 in Theatre Journal 43/2 London: The John Hopkins University Press


Bawcutt, N. W. (1996) The Control and Censorship of Caroline Drama: The Records of Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels 1623-73 Oxford: Clarendon Press


Bentley, Gerald Eades (1941) The King's Revels Company pp. 283-301 in The Jacobean and Caroline Stage Vol I: Dramatic Companies and Players London: Oxford University Press


----. (1968) The Salisbury Court pp. 86-115 in The Jacobean and Caroline Stage Vol VI: Theatres London: Oxford University Press


----. (1968) The Jacobean and Caroline Stage VII: Appendices to Vol VI and General Index London: Oxford University Press 


Butler, Martin (1984) Theatre and Crisis 1632-1642 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Chambers, E.K. (1923) The Elizabethan Stage Vol II  Oxford: Clarendon Press


Mulryne, J. R. and Shewring, Margaret (eds.) (1993) Theatre and Government Under the Early Stuarts Cambridge: Cambridge University Press




Queen Henrietta Maria and King Charles I


Carlton, Charles (1983) Charles I: The Personal Monarch London: Routledge & Kegan Paul


Hibbert, Christopher (1968) Charles I London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson


Plowden, Alison (2001) Henrietta Maria: Charles I's Indomitable Queen Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd.


Watson, D.R. (ed. and intro Fraser, Antonia) (1972) The Life and Times of Charles I  London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson




Language Companions


Crystal, David, and Crystal, Ben (2002) Shakespeare's Words: A Glossary and Language Companion London: Penguin Books


Dessen, Alan C. and Thomson, Leslie (1999) A Dictionary of Stage Directions in English Drama, 1580-1642 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Harvey, Sir Paul (1966, 1937) The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature Oxford: Clarendon Press


Hathorn, Richmond Y. (1967) The Handbook of Classical Drama London: Arthur Barker Limited


March, Jenny (1998, 2001) Cassell's Dictionary of Classical Mythology London: Cassell




Encyclopaedia Mythica online at


Word Origins online at




Editorial Procedure


Taylor, Gary & Warren, Michael (eds.) (1983) The Division of the Kingdoms: Shakespeare's Two Versions of 'King Lear' Oxford: Oxford University Press


Thompson, Ann (2001) Feminist Theory and the Editing of Shakespeare: 'The Taming of the Shrew' Revisited pp. 49-69 in Chedgzoy, Kate (ed.) Shakespeare, Feminism and Gender Hampshire: Palgrave