Thomas Rawlins’ ‘The Rebellion’
Edited by Amy Lockwood
2 - 14
Biography of Thomas Rawlins
Date of the Play and Brief Performance History
Contemporary Topical Issues
Characterisation and Themes
Parallels with Other Literary Works and Renaissance Ideology
Editorial Techniques / Decisions and Problems experienced
Glossary / Notes to the Text
Lists all Texts read and Websites visited whilst preparing this edition of The Rebellion
Biography of Thomas Rawlins
Little is known of Thomas Rawlins. The online Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) estimates that Rawlins was born around 1620 in the south of England and we know he was a relation of Robert Ducie of Aston, to whom he dedicated The Rebellion when the play was published in 1640. We know that Rawlins married Dorothea Narbona, probably after the Civil War in England finished. Rawlins moved to France after the English Civil War finished, before returning to England when the monarchy was restored, and he produced a medal for the Coronation of Charles II in 1660. Rawlins died, most likely in London, in 1670.
Rawlins’ main career throughout his life seems to be as an engraver. The Oxford DNB states that Rawlins was an apprentice goldsmith and gem-engraver in London before working at the Royal Mint under Nicholas Briot, a renowned French engraver and medallist. The Mint was moved to Oxford when the English Civil War commenced in 1643 and Rawlins was appointed graver of seals, stamps and medals. Rawlins was responsible for the 1644 ‘Celebrated Oxford Crown’, a coin which showed King Charles I riding across the hills that overlooked the city of Oxford, and consequently was appointed Chief Engraver. During the Civil War Rawlins was responsible for the production of many medals, most notably the Gold Shrewsbury Medal commissioned on January 23rd 1643 and the ‘Peace or War’ medal in July 1643, and as noted above, later the Coronation Medal for Charles II.
The Rebellion was the only play written by Rawlins to be performed during his lifetime and it is not known when his two other plays – Tom Essence and The Modish Wife – were published, though both were performed in the late 1670’s. Despite his relatively short-lived and un-noteworthy literary career Rawlins was a member of the Brome Circle along with Thomas Nabbes, John Tatham, Robert Chamberlain, Richard Brome and Humphrey Mill. In an article for Notes and Queries, Matthew Steggle details how Tatham contributed verses to Rawlins who in turn wrote verses for Chamberlain, as well as for Nathaniel Richard’s play Tragedy of Messalina. Steggle also details how Martin Butler identifies the Brome Circle as being “politically aware, and bound together by an interest in the moralizing possibilities of the popular tradition and a sense of opposition to frivolous courtly values”.
Therefore whilst The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography suggests that the title The Rebellion was coincidently prophetic of the English Civil War, Rawlins’ involvement with the Brome Circle suggests that the play could instead have been a calculated prediction of what the of what the tumultuous political and social atmosphere of the early seventeenth century in England would lead to. For further details please see ‘Contemporary Topical Issues’.
The Brome Circle’s “opposition to frivolous courtly values” suggests that the frequent criticism of the Colonels’ foppish and courtly behaviour in The Rebellion can be seen as true satirical commentary rather than Rawlins merely adhering to contemporary popular themes and motifs
Date of the Play and Brief Performance History
The Rebellion was performed between 1637 and 1639 by the King’s Revels (who also performed plays by Rawlins’ close friends Richards and Brome) at Salisbury Court Theatre. Salisbury Court Theatre replaced the popular Whitefriars playhouse and was a private, purpose-built playhouse built by Richard Gunnell and William Blagrove in 1629. The Theatre was destroyed by soldiers during the Civil War but was one of the first playhouses to open following the 1660 restoration of the English Monarchy. Indeed Samuel Pepys records visiting Salisbury Court Theatre in his diary in 1661.
offered a greater degree of comfort than the open-air inn-yards and
amphitheatres (based on the Roman Coliseum), and as playhouses were roofed
performances could be put on throughout the year and in the evenings.
Consequently admittance to private indoor theatres was much more expensive,
costing between 2 and 26d a performance, compared to public theatres where a
performance could be watched for between 1 – 3d. The greater cost meant that
the majority of the working class were prohibited from attending playhouse
performances. At Salisbury Court Theatre, as at other playhouses, prices were
highest for the more comfortable seats and those that allowed for a better view
of the performance.
It is impossible to underestimate the impact that playhouses wrought on early modern theatre. The acoustics of indoor theatres lent themselves to music and songs and more playwrights began to include them in their plays, as does Rawlins in Act IV Scene 5 of The Rebellion. For the first time scenery and sumptuous costumes were used, many of which were sold to acting troupes by the English aristocracy. The focus of plays was now the actors’ speeches rather than loud, crass sound effects. Plays could be more powerful, passionate, and satirical – more thought provoking perhaps? It was only with the introduction of playhouses that Renaissance theatre began to resemble what we understand by the term ‘theatre’ in the twenty-first century.
Indeed it was not until playhouses were used for performances that intervals were introduced - playhouses were lit by candles and when these burnt down there had to be a way for them to be replaced without the performance being interrupted. During the interval food and drink were served to keep the audience entertained, as it still is today. Even now if you go to an open-air production it is unlikely there will be a break in the performance but every modern audience member would be surprised if there was not an interval during a theatre performance.
i) The Political Climate in England and the Civil War
Firstly I am aware that the English Civil War did not begin until October 1642 and that this is five years after the first performance of Rawlins’ The Rebellion., but wars do not happen overnight. In this section I hope to show that events from James I’s reign contributed to the civil war that tore England apart for seven years. Thomas Rawlins was a member of the politically conscious Brome Circle – it can be no coincidence that he wrote a play about a powerful man trying to overthrow a King who in many ways, as I will show, resembles both James I and Charles I, such a short time before his own homeland was caught up in a rebellion.
status of the monarchy in England began to decline during the reign of James I,
Elizabeth’s heir. James I strongly believed in the idea of ‘Divine Right’.
This is where the King is God’s representative on Earth: he is born into the
position and his position and power cannot be questioned, even by parliament.
James I was constantly in need of money and in 1611 when Parliament told him
that he could not collect further custom duties he suspended Parliament, and it
was not reconvened until 1621. During this decade James I’s friends helped rule
the country and were rewarded with land and titles. This angered Members of
Parliament as they believed it was their right to run England.
When James I recalled Parliament in 1621 it was to discuss the marriage between his son, Charles, and the Spanish princess. Parliament ferociously stressed their displeasure about the proposed alliance between Protestant England and Catholic Spain, who only thirty years previously had tried to attack England. The relationship between King and parliament was irreversibly damaged, even though the marriage never took place.
When Charles became King in 1625 he proved to be even more conceited and arrogant than his father. As a firm believer in the ‘Divine Right’ of Kings he blamed Parliament members entirely for their tumultuous relationship with James I. in 1629 Charles I had the doors of Westminster locked with chains and padlocks and what is now known as the ‘Eleven Years Tyranny’ ensued. During this time Charles’ relationship with Parliament, the old aristocracy, some members of the newly rich and, to an extent, even with the lower classes declined.
Charles reconvened Parliament in 1640 when he needed money after angering the Scots to such an extent they invaded England. Parliament agreed to give Charles the money if the Earl of Stafford, one of his advisors, was executed and if Charles disbanded the Court of Star Chamber, which he had replaced Parliament with in 1629. Charles agreed but just two years later, on 4 January 1642, no longer able to tolerate having to answer to Parliament, Charles raised 300 soldiers to arrest his more vociferous critics in Parliament. The men were forewarned and managed to escape but it was now evident that Charles and the English Parliament could no longer rule side by side. Civil War was inevitable.
In light of the above it is possible to see The Rebellion as Rawlins’ predicting the outcome of the prevailing social and political unrest. The above shows that from 1611 England was ultimately a divided country. Increasing industrialisation, urbanisation, over-crowding and unemployment inevitably led to desire for change and Charles I represented everything that was conservative and was blind to the need for change. Please see Characterisation and Themes for further details.
ii) Puritanical England
As any reader of Renaissance Literature
will be aware England had been caught up in religious turmoil since Henry
VIII’s reign. By the 1600’s an extreme form of Protestantism had emerged – Puritanism
– which advocated a simple, un-extravagant lifestyle. Giovanno makes reference
to this in I.2.158-9 when he refers to kneeling as a ‘superstitious rite’. As
explained in the glossary, in the latter half of the sixteenth century Puritans
preached against kneeling at the altar because it was a Conformist practices.
In Act 3 Scene 1 the Old Tailor refers to ‘sinful actors’ (line 68) which evidently is highly ironic seeing as it is an actor saying it to a playhouse full of regular theatregoers. Rawlins was evidently mocking the Puritans who campaigned to have all theatres shut. However, as explained above, Salisbury Court was closed in 1648 and, along with all theatres, stayed closed during Cromwell’s reign. It was until the Restoration and Charles II’s ascension to the throne that theatres and other public entertainments reopened. As I will show later tailors were derided from the Elizabethan era but even more so during Cromwell’s reign when all extravagances including fine clothes were viewed with suspicion and contempt.
As a playwright Rawlins obviously had little sympathy with Puritanical ideologies but in light of the above it is with little wonder that Rawlins fled to France after Cromwell – a Puritan – won the Civil War. Rawlins was not an established playwright but he had put himself in a difficult – and indeed dangerous – position by criticising what came to be the dominant political and religious force in England for eleven years and he had also worked for the Royal Mint before and during the War. Rawlins could have been seen as a very dangerous man.
Characterisation and Themes
This section of the introduction considers the themes and ideas that Rawlins explores in The Rebellion; what it does not do is provide you with the answers. I will explore the major aspects of the play and hopefully explain any difficult ideas but my main aim is to make the reader aware of the political and theoretical ideas that exist in The Rebellion and hopefully encourage further thought and perhaps study. In this section I also examine the main characters of the play and the ways in which Rawlins employs them to develop the main ideas.
i) Machvile, King Philip and Leadership
The main action of the play revolves around Machvile’s plotting and Rawlins uses this to explore the idea of power and leadership. To me Machvile is the most powerful, complex and interesting of the characters by far. He is the only character who speaks almost constantly in perfect iambic pentameter, which makes him stand out immediately from the other characters. Not since Shakespeare’s Don John in Much Ado About Nothing have we seen a character full of such undiluted hatred make speeches full of such venom. Due to the spelling of the name it is obvious that Rawlins wanted his readers / the audience to make an immediate connection between The Rebellion’s main villain and Machiavelli, and therefore corrupt politics and ideology. Despite some modern critics, such as David Fry, who propagate the idea that Machiavelli was actually a philosophical man with advanced political ideas (for example in Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius Machiavelli seems to advocate republicanism) Machiavelli is still associated with corrupt, totalitarian politics as he was in Renaissance England. Much of the drama produced in this period featured a Machiavellian villain, for example Mortimer Junior in Marlowe’s Edward II and Edmund in King Lear by William Shakespeare.
As noted above in the biographical section of the introduction, Rawlins worked for the Royal Mint before and during the English Civil War, and fled to France when England became a republic in 1649. Can one therefore presume then that Rawlins’ “opposition to … courtly values” did not extend to an opposition of hereditary rule? In The Rebellion the King is enraged when he is referred to by his Christian name rather than his title: “Philip? Traitor, why not King? I am so.” (V.3.27). Yes, Philip is the King and, even by today’s social standards, would expect to be referred to as such. Yet later in the scene when he asks the (rhetorical) question “I’st not my right? Was not I heir to Spain?” (V.3.170) it shows that the true reason for the King’s anger was that Machvile, or indeed anyone, should dare to challenge him or his rule.
Philip sees his kingship as a ‘divine right’, which as I showed earlier was an idea propagated by both James I and Charles I. The idea of ‘Divine Right’ suggested that Kings were God’s representatives on Earth and when King Philip refers to his crown as a “balsam” (V.3.169), a flowering plant, the reader is reminded of the crown of thorns that Jesus wore whilst on the crucifix. This in turn emphasises the (supposed) link between God and Royalty. This idea was prevalent in England at this time and explains why Machvile and his co-conspirators all had to perish in The Rebellion – they were going against the natural order: in plotting against the King they were plotting against God.
In my opinion it is impossible to see Philip as anything but as a bad King. Spain is under attack from France, an army massively superior in terms of skill, position and number, but he is absent throughout the majority of the play. The King does not appear until Act Four Scene 5 when he is talking to the Old Tailor, Evadne and Aurelia and neither of the ladies are aware of the identity of the person they are speaking to. Yes, one would not expect to see the King with a tailor but their complete oblivion suggests that Philip is not a public figure, which during war, if not at any other time, he should be.
One could argue that Philip is away fighting during the early scenes of the play but this is never clarified. Even if this is the case, Philip leaves his country under the rule of an ineffective Governor who is easily persuaded by Machvile that the honourable Antonio is plotting against him, which suggests a gullibility and weakness of character, not characteristics one associates with a leader! When the Governor is killed, Machvile is named as his successor, as ordered by the King. One therefore has to question how a King can be so oblivious to the true characters of the people he has not only surrounded himself with, but put in positions of immense power. If Machvile represents Machiavellian politics and the corruption and treachery associated with it, then I have to argue that Philip represents all that is wrong with hereditary rule – he is an incompetent ruler, unaware of plots against him and his county and even when he witnesses Machvile’s plotting in the final scene of the play it is as if he still does not understand what he is saying. Is this because Philip is shocked that someone should challenge his rule, which suggests a level off arrogance, or rather, does it suggest a slowness of wit in Philip? Both are negative characteristics, especially in a King, but despite his failings Philip’s position is affirmed at the end of the play, unquestioned by the characters and therefore arguably by Rawlins.
What it Means to Be Female in The Rebellion
Another theme explored in The Rebellion, is the idea of female power and sexuality, developed through the characters Evadne, Aurelia, Auristella and Philippa. I wish to explore each character individually and how Rawlins develops this theme though them before commenting on female roles in the play overall.
Auristella is the wife of Machvile, the play’s main villain, and there are clear parallels between their characters; Machvile says “our souls are twins” (III.2.24) and it is this idea that I wish to comment on. Auristella’s violent death can be seen as the obvious consequence of her involvement with the plot against the King; a justified punishment for violating the natural order. However, in light of the above quote, I think it is possible to see Auristella’s murder as the death sentence for being too similar to Machvile, that is, too masculine. Auristella’s ambition to be Queen is so extensive that she would kill her own family (III.2.16-23) and her speeches eloquent and intelligent. These are all characteristics that would have been associated with masculinity in the Renaissance. The best way I can explain this idea is to comment on Shakespeare’s treatment of Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth prompts her husband to commit murder by questioning his masculinity by saying he lacks determination and the ability to commit violent acts. She says if she were ‘unsexed’, i.e. a man, she would have no difficulty in killing Duncan. Lady Macbeth can be seen to straddle traditional gender roles – she has the ambition but not the ability to carry out actual violence like a man; going insane can be seen as being her punishment. Lady Macbeth is seen by many critics as the most vile and frightening of Shakespeare’s female characters and I believe this is because of her masculine characteristics. Auristella goes against the natural order not only by plotting against Philip, but also by trying to transgress from her ordained gender role, and it for this that she has to be punished.
This is also true for Philippa. Whilst Auristella’s soul i.e. her nature, is like Machvile’s, Phillipa is Raymond’s “twin of war” (I.3.6) – Philippa and her husband are alike in war i.e. the actual committing of violence. Philippa is constantly compared to warriors but initially always with a reference to her femininity; she is an Amazon, a Governess of Arms, a female Bradamante. Philippa is actively involved in the fighting and does kill a soldier in the course of the play (II.4.103-4). I think it noteworthy that it is at this point that the Spanish Colonels refer to her “masculine spirit” (II.4.75) – by committing actual violence she has crossed firmly over to the male world and this is why she is punished. Philippa is poisoned and also loses her sanity; is this a dual punishment because she not only thinks like a man but acts like a man – she is ambitious and she acts on her ambition? One would expect the poison Philippa is given to have purely physical effects rather than affect her mental wellbeing as well. Philippa’s insanity can also be seen as the result of the guilt she feels, as is the case with Lady Macbeth. Philippa may have entered the masculine world but her female psyche cannot deal with her male actions. Philippa punishes herself (i.e. through losing her sanity through guilt) and is punished by society because she is too masculine for the Renaissance world (i.e. by being murdered).
Whilst Lady Macbeth and Auristella straddle the gender spheres – they may think like men but they ultimately remain ‘female’. With Philippa however Rawlins explores the idea of gender roles further. Philippa becomes ‘male’, and embodies all the ambition, violence and cruelty one can associate with it. Of course Philippa is punished for this so Rawlins can be seen as supporting the status quo, but I think he should be applauded for his demonstration of Philippa. Women were always seen to act on an emotional rather than logical level. Whilst Philippa is by no means a traditionally sympathetically character, Rawlins presents us with a female character who has male characteristics, who is a successful – indeed brilliant – soldier, who is logical, brave, skilful and, when engaged in combat, acts honourably.
Aurelia may be the most minor of the female characters but I find her rather interesting. Aurelia saves Antonio, the play’s hero, twice; initially in Act Three Scene 3 when she saves him, literally, from Death, and then again in Act 4 Scene 3 when she helps him escape from Filford Mill, where he was to be executed. Aurelia loves Antonio because of his honourable reputation which she has learned of from her brother. Antonio loves her because he believes her to be an angel who has saved him. Their love is the most pure of all the relationships in the play but yet both characters are ultimately punished. Antonio dies and Rawlins uses Christian reasoning to justify Antonio’s death: “Blood/ Must have blood; so speaks the law of Heaven” (V.3.144-5) and Aurelia is ordered join a convent and spend her life in “religious prayer” (V.3.205). Aurelia is seen to be honourable and dutiful when she readily agrees saying it was “a fault/ To break the bonds of duty and law” (V.3.206-7) by helping Antonio escape from the Mill. I think it interesting to note that the word duty comes before law. Antonio’s death was ordered by Machvile, the acting Governor of Spain, yet Aurelia acknowledges her duty to her father first. In Renaissance literature the private (domestic) sphere was the female one, whilst men belonged in the public sphere of politics, war and, for the lower classes, employment. Aurelia betrays her father by not killing Antonio but, like Machvile and the other conspirators, she has also betrayed the natural order; she entered the public world of politics and violence and, like Philippa and Auristella, ultimately has to be punished for it.
At this point I wish briefly to look at how religion is portrayed in The Rebellion, where there are two characters whose ‘punishment’ is either justified by religion or, in the case of Aurelia, whose punishment is religion. The play opens with three characters discussing Antonio’s positive attributes – his honour, his bravery, his ability as a soldier; arguably Antonio is the Renaissance ideal of positive manhood, yet his death is portrayed as inevitable and justified because the Bible dictates it; an eye for an eye. Aurelia who is chaste, virtuous and loyal to her love for Antonio, is punished because she went against her father’s will and is forced to become a nun. Petruchio believes she has done wrong so how can it be possible to see his ordering her to join a convent as anything but the consequence of her wrong doing? Earlier in the play Sebastiano refers to kneeling at the altar as a “superstitious / Rite” (I.2.158-9), a reference to the Puritan campaign against conformist practices, but Evadne challenges him for kneeling before her saying it is a “ceremony due to none but Heaven” (I.2.162). I think this exchange between Sebastiano and Evadne can be seen as a concentrated reference to the internal religious struggle present in Renaissance England.
Is Rawlins using The Rebellion to argue that the religious turmoil that had existed in England since Henry VIII’s reign is actually eroding religion in England? That Christianity was ultimately being torn into two (if not more) separate belief systems and consequently destroying social unity and people’s belief systems? In The Rebellion we have a couple divided by their religious beliefs (one has to question how this will affect the upbringing of their children) and another couple punished because religious beliefs dictate that they must be. I think one could convincingly argue that religion is portrayed as a negative thing in The Rebellion, but if this is your interpretation you would also have to argue that Philip is portrayed as a weak King to challenge the idea of Divine Right. As I stated above I do think that would be a valid reading of the play but remember that Rawlins was an employee of the Crown and therefore would have been putting himself in a very difficult and potentially dangerous position. It could just be that only a modern, less overtly religious, audience could argue that Antonio’s death cannot be justified using just religious ideology, or that joining a convent can be seen as a negative experience but I think it is possible to read The Rebellion as a subversive critique of religion during the Renaissance and that one should not disregard this whilst reading the play.
Evadne is the only female character in The Rebellion who is not seen to be punished. As a well-born and beautiful lady she is wooed ineffectually by several Spanish aristocrats. Instead she fall in love with her tailor, ‘Giovanno’, despite the fact that as his true self i.e. Sebastiano, he was one of the many she said no to. I think that one therefore has to question what this says about Evadne and also the validity of Evadne and Sebastiano’s later marriage. Firstly, does Evade love ‘Giovanno’ because she knows that she should not, or because in this relationship, as his social superior, she would be the one with power? Neither are positive reasons, and the latter suggests that Evadne craves power in a similar way as Philippa and Auristella, who are punished by death for this ‘crime’. It is impossible to have a definite and ultimate answer as to why Evadne is so infatuated with ‘Giovanno’, but ultimately the question is fruitless because ‘Giovanno’ is revealed to be Sebastiano and this is why Evadne goes unpunished. Her ‘crimes’ of falling in love with a social inferior, betraying her duty to her family and her brother’s wishes become non-existent when ‘Giovanno’ reveals his true identity.
As in a comedy, Sebastiano and Evadne’s marriage represents the restoration of social harmony and social continuity. But how stable is their union? As his true self Sebastiano was unable to win Evadne’s heart so their union is threatened from the beginning. As shown in the section entitled ‘Contemporary Topical Issues’ the partnership between Charles I and Parliament was unstable from the start of Charles’ reign. I think it is possible to see Evadne and Sebastiano’s relationship as a reflective commentary on the relationship between King and Parliament at the time when Rawlins was writing. Evadne, as an aristocrat, represents royalty and the old feudal system whilst Sebastiano, in his ready friendship with the tailors and as ‘Giovanno’, represents Parliament and republicanism. Evadne and Sebastiano’s unsteady union represents a threat to social harmony just as the relationship between Charles and Parliament threatened social harmony in England. Remember that just five years after the play was written England was engaged in Civil War – there was no continuity in England anymore: the union between King (Evadne) and Parliament (Sebastiano) has irrevocably split.
The character of Evadne is also used to comment on sexuality. There are references to sexual acts from the onset of the play, as seen in the references to Syphilis in the first scene of the play and the sexual connotations of Sebastiano’s speech when he says he will be punished by Clap because of his lustful thoughts (I.2.95) There is no doubt in the audience’s mind that Evadne is chaste yet her brother asks her “are your favours grown prostitute to all” (II.2 65-6) when he sees her kissing Antonio. When Evadne is kidnapped by the Bandits in Act 4 Scene 1, Sebastiano is quick to believe she is “fly-blown” (IV.2.82), i.e. Evadne is no longer a virgin. A modern audience would most likely be outraged by Sebastiano attitude but remember the prevailing fear of being humiliated by being cuckolded by one’s wife and the epidemic proportions of Syphilis during the sixteenth century.
Whilst carrying out research for this project however I found some information about rape trials carried out in England in the seventeenth century. In Shakespeare Without Women: Representing Race and Gender on the Renaissance Stage Callaghan quotes from Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud, where Laqueur explains how during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was believed that female orgasm was thought to be necessary for conception. Consequently if a woman conceived during rape she must have reached orgasm and therefore must have consented. In his book Laqueur quotes from Quaife’s Wanted Wenches and Wayward Wives, which explains how the above idea was used by magistrates during rape trials, leading to many acquittals. This inevitably had an effect on people’s perception of rape i.e. it could be a pleasurable experience for women. Sebastiano believes Evadne was raped but it is his inability to know whether or not she was a ‘willing victim’ that causes his emotional turmoil. In her book Women and the English Renaissance: Literature and the Nature of Womankind 1540 – 1620 Woodbridge explains “chastity was the absolute demand made on virtuous womanhood”. Even if Sebastiano believes Evadne was a victim she is no longer chaste and therefore no longer virtuous and it is that that Sebastiano struggles to forgive her for. The play suggested and my research confirmed that there was a fine line during the Renaissance between being chaste and being unchaste; by kissing Antonio and being a ‘willing’ rape victim Evadne could easily have been classified as the latter.
Therefore in The Rebellion I believe it is impossible to see the female characters as anything but victims. They are punished for being ambitious, for being brave, for being in love, for being victims. A woman cannot live in the male world without being destroyed by guilt or punished by society and she cannot exist in the private sphere without the potential of being a victim and being punished for that. In her book Woodbridge quotes from An Apologie for Women-Kinde published in 1605, where I.G. says that “Those mannish queans are most degenerate” when he is discussing female soldiers. Woodbridge explains how “scenes set in wartime in the drama of the 1590’s are permeated with a sense of sexual chaos. Women have become associated with war”, - for example in Shakespeare’s King John. The negative connotations contained in the dramas and the confused feelings that this new idea invoked in the audience and society inevitably led to feelings such as those expressed by I.G.
In this context it perhaps understandable why Rawlins felt that Philippa had to perish. Woodbridge goes onto explain how during the Renaissance it was feared that “armed with the governing skills acquired in their own households, they (i.e. women) might advance into the political arena”. John Knox, writing in the mid sixteenth century made a direct link between the number of female European rulers and “widespread failure to heed biblical injunctions towards wifely subjection” , explaining why Philippa, Auristella and, to an extent, Aurelia have to be seem to be published – by entering the public sphere they threaten the natural order and encourage all women to step out of the domestic sphere. James I was a pacifist meaning that many soldiers had no relevant social role anymore. Men were being emasculated at a time when women were being seen to be entering the public world. In seventeenth century England this alarmed many people from all social groups and Rawlins can be seen to be responding to that i.e. if a woman strays from the domestic sphere she will be punished and therefore is it not better for her to do as God intended and stay in the domestic, female world. Many conduct books published in this era advocate the same idea as do other literary works, and The Rebellion can be seen to be adhering to this trend.
Background Information On What It Meant To Be A Tailor In Elizabethan and
Just before concluding this section I wish to give some information which may help you understand the opinions of tailors conveyed by the other characters. Throughout The Rebellion there is the prevailing idea of things not being as they seem – Sebastiano is in disguise throughout the play as Giovanno and later as a French tailor, Aurelia and Antonio dress as hermits, Antonio dresses as a physician, Machvile tricks the Governor into challenging Antonio and pretends to be in alliance with Raymond whilst secretly plotting to kill him as well as the King, the Brave hides under a table cloth and this all links to fashion / clothing. In their book Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, Jones and Stallybrass explain how the cliché ‘clothes make the man’ was truly a frightening idea in the Renaissance. They quote from Stephen Orgal who said “what allows boys to be substituted for women in the theatre…[is] precisely the costume, and more particularly, cultural assumptions about costumes” (Jones and Stallybrass: 2). One must remember at this time different social classes wore different colours and different materials, and there was a genuine fear that a member of the lower classes could pretend to be of a higher social class, a fear that one could never be truly certain that people really were who they said they were. The obvious people to blame for this were tailors; they made it possible for people to disguise themselves. Puritans also propagated the idea that an interest in fashion meant that one was proud and vain and therefore evil. During the Renaissance tailors were seen as being sexually ambiguous and this idea can be seen in Sebastaino’s speech in Act 1 Scene 2, lines 45-67, and as go-betweens as seen when Raymond asks Philippa if Sebastiano, when he is disguised as her tailor, is an “eavesdropper” (IV.7.24) There was also the popular idea that tailors were much weaker than the average man, that they were small and thin. Apparently when eighteen tailors attended Queen Elizabeth, she welcomed them by saying ‘good morning, gentleman both’, a reference to the proverb ‘nine tailors make a man’.
I hope that this information helps explain why the colonels are so disgusted when Sebastiano captures Raymond and why they refer to him as a “mechanic slave” (II.4.125) and so on. Also as to why the tailors are so eager to make their name as brave soldiers and later as skilled actors, and why the Old tailor is so honoured that the King is going to make it know that he has been a guest of the tailors: they want their trade to be seen as a skill, for them to be seen as equal to other traders and not derided by society. The play closes with a speech by the King saying he would be poor if it was not for his loyal subjects. As a playwright tailors would have provided an invaluable service for Rawlins – upper class people sold their clothes to acting troupes, costumes had to be altered or made so perhaps Rawlins was just perhaps paying them a lip-service, but alternatively perhaps he wanted the audience, and society as a whole, to see how irrational this stereotype was and that is why he made a tailor the hero of the play.
This section is by no means an exhaustive exploration of the play’s major themes – I do not have room for that here – but I hope it ignites your imagination and helps you see possible ways in which it is possible to read the play – as a commentary on the social turmoil facing England, the internal religious battle resulting from the determination to split one religion into different factions for political, social and arguably petty reasons, as a conduct book for women – a warning what to happen to them if they try to move out of their ordained sphere. I am also inclined to argue that as the only characters who speak predominantly in verse, who are eloquent and passionate, who make the audience sit up and take notice are the conspirators, that the play is a celebration of the villain. They are all punished, there is no escaping from that, but ask yourself when you finish the play who your favourite character is and I guarantee it will be one of the conspirators. Again, does this mean that Rawlins is criticising the King and the status quo? Only you can decide what you personally believe. I have my opinion, but it is now time for you to read and the play and form your opinion – after all that is what the study of literature is all about.
Parallels with Other Renaissance Literary Works and Traditions
The Renaissance saw a departure from religious ideology dominating, and repressing, intellectual and creative thought and production, and a return to classical learning and a revival of the arts, including drama which followed Aristotle’s principles, and contained frequent references to classical Gods and mythology, which often provided the plots for Early Modern plays. The Rebellion is littered with reference to a mixture of Greek and Roman Gods – an error made by several Renaissance writers – as well as classic mythology such as the stories of Hercules. This was a simple and easy way for Renaissance writers to associate their works with classic, great, literature. Rawlins sometimes appears to overly rely on classical mythology and in some instances it is ill-applied, for example when Philippa refers to Raymond waving to the city’s axletree (III.4.5); does Rawlins think it is an actual tree that Atlas used to hold up the Heavens and that there was more than one or is the verse simply poorly written, creating confusion as to what Rawlins means?
The return to classical teachings led to the production of the first English tragedies (they were preceded by morality and miracle plays in the Medieval Age), which explored the themes of murder, cruelty, lust for the first time on the English stage. Tragedies consisted of five acts, were written in blank verse and traditionally the violence was not acted onstage, merely referred to. The Rebellion is in five acts and is written mainly in, albeit not perfect, iambic pentameter. Prose first appeared on the English stage in 1566 in George Gascoigne’s play Supposes and Rawlins employs both styles with a mixture of success. Antonio is honourable, brave and eloquent like the average Renaissance hero whilst, as noted above, Machvile is the typical Renaissance Machiavellian villain.
Towards the end of James I’s reign Spanish literature became better known in England and other popular writers drew on Spanish sources or based their plays in Spain, such as Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy. Setting their plays in France or Spain allowed writers to safely comment on the religious tensions gripping England or discuss contemporary political and social topics without the risk of having their work censored or worse, being classed as a traitorous. Some critics say that Rawlins sets his play in Spain merely because it was what was popular at the time and Rawlins does make a reference to The Spanish Tragedy in Act V Scene 2 so he was obviously aware of other popular works set abroad. However as I have shown it is possible to read The Rebellion as a commentary on both the political and religious atmosphere of early modern England and Rawlins would have been foolish to not set it abroad. How could one, in Renaissance England, even contemplate writing a play about the overthrowing of a King and set it in England? The play would never have made it to the stage and Rawlins could have taken before Council to explain and perhaps plead for his life.
It is possible to see comparisons with other popular Renaissance plays but I am going to focus on making parallels with plays by William Shakespeare, which most people will be familiar with.
Othello, which was written around 1604 and published in 1622, sees Shakespeare employing a black protagonist to explore the themes of otherness and alienation but why is Raymond black in The Rebellion, other than for the reason that the protagonist of a popular play, written by the most significant playwright the English stage had ever seen, was? There are only three references to Raymond being a Moor in the play and none of them are made to comment on his physical attributes or his strength as a soldier, as in Othello. Both Othello and Raymond are brave and prestigious warriors and like Shakespeare’s Othello who, despite saying he “have not those soft parts of conversations” (III.3.268), makes many eloquent speeches, Raymond too makes passionate speeches to his soldiers and emotive ones to his wife. Rawlins evidently respected many of the qualities that Othello has but there is no apparent reason why he made Raymond black; Raymond’s race has no effect on the plot or the play’s themes.
Macbeth, written around 1606 and first published in 1623, like The Rebellion, considers the idea of things not being as they seem, with the witches declaring in the first act that you cannot trust anything or anyone; everything has a hidden element. In The Rebellion Machvile is the King’s right-hand man, but is plotting against him, Antonio, Aurelia and Sebastiano are all in disguise during the course of the play and there are several instances of characters hiding in order to eavesdrop.
Like Shakespeare’s Coriolanus, Macbeth deals with the issues of gender and violence. Lady Macbeth questions her husband’s masculinity because he hesitates when she tells him to kill Duncan and she says if she were ‘unsexed’ i.e. not a woman, she would kill Duncan herself. A powerful, violent and ambitious female character obviously has links with The Rebellion, but in Rawlins’ play femininity is not a barrier to achieving one’s ambition; Rawlins’ female characters transcend gender. As in Macbeth and Coriolanus the ‘masculine’ females in The Rebellion are seen as degenerate and abnormal and like Lady Macbeth they are punished for it.
There are also minor comparisons with other Shakespeare plays. Antonio makes a casual reference to the enmity between his and Sebastiano’s family (IV.4.51-6), but it was never given as a reason as to why Sebastiano did not successfully woo Evadne. Antonio also says it was his father’s last wish that his and Sebastiano’s family never be joined through marriage yet he promptly dismisses the idea, which is a great contrast to his reaction to Evadne and Sebastiano’s embrace when he accuses her of slighting their dead parent’s memory. It almost seems like an afterthought, as if Rawlins suddenly remembered Romeo and Juliet and the hostility between the Capulets and the Montagues. The hostility between the families was the foundation of Shakespeare’s play but there was no need for Rawlins to divide Sebastiano and Evadne by yet another factor.
In Act II Scene 1 of The Rebellion, when Antonio refuses to say anything at counsel, one should be reminded of Cordelia and King Lear’s exchange in Act I Scene 1 in Shakespeare’s King Lear. Cordelia, unlike her sisters Regan and Goneril, refuses to make an extravagant speech detailing her love for her father, because she believes this demeans not only herself but also her love for Lear. Regan and Goneril’s speeches are so opulent that, to a reader, they are overtly false. Cordelia’s love is pure, the genuine result of the sense of honour and duty she feels towards her father, and she refuses to use her love as a bargaining tool to secure her share of the kingdom. In The Rebellion Antonio’s sense of duty and love is towards his country and his King and that is why he refuses to respond to Machvile’s appalling war plan. Machvile’s plan would lead the Spanish soldiers to almost certain death but if the Spanish Colonels have realised the false nature of Machvile’s speeches, Antonio certainly will have. Machvile’s speech are so evidently “studied” (II.1.58), and therefore his sense of loyalty to Spain so obviously false, that Antonio’s honour will not allow him to respond to them. This is parallel to why Cordelia refuses to match the tone of Regan and Goneril’s speeches.
Act V Scene 1 of The Rebellion also has a startling resemblance to the carnage we see in the last scene of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. As stated above it was not the classical tradition for violence to be acted on the stage yet Rawlins clearly favoured Shakespeare’s popularity over literary tradition!
There is a startling resemblance between Virmine and A Midsummer Night’s Dream’s Bottom, especially in the language Virmine uses, his self-aggrandizing speeches and nature, his desire to fill all the parts in the tailor’s play in Act V Scene 2, and the overt, slapstick humour he introduces to the play. However Virmine’s ready willingness to let the tailors have the minor part as long as he can play the King suggests a sly intelligence that Bottom did not have. Obviously there is the link between the tailors in The Rebellion forming an amateur acting troupe and the craftsmen in A Midsummer’s Night Dream doing the same. Unfortunately we never see the tailors’ play in The Rebellion but as the tailors say very little perhaps, with the exception of Virmine and the Old Tailor (who has not involved in the play anyway) they were not accomplished enough to be the play’s focus for a significant period of time.
The thematic comparisons with Shakespeare are evident but it does not mean that Rawlins was simply trying to mimic the most prolific writer of the time. In Renaissance England politics, gender and religion were important contemporary issues and explored by many dramatists and writers – we cannot accuse them all of copying Shakespeare. It is aspects such as unnecessarily having a black character or a grudge between the two main characters that I find disheartening. Rawlins, whether rightly or wrongly, did not have enough confidence in his own writing to feel that his play could stand on its own merit, without having unnecessary similarities to the plays by the period’s major playwright. Rawlins obviously wanted to comment on important social issues but I am not convinced that he had the artistic ability to do so well.
Another parallel with a popular, contemporary play, is that Evadne shares her name with the heroine of The Maid’s Tragedy by Beaumont and Fletcher. The Maid’s Tragedy was written around 1610, after the assassination of Henry IV of France in 1610, but not published until 1619. The play, a revenge tragedy with many parallels to Shakespeare’s Hamlet (as emphasised by Sandra Clark), was hugely successful and popular, until it was banned by Charles II, presumably because of the scene where Evadne kills the King as he lies in bed. The Maid’s Tragedy’s Evadne bears little similarity to Rawlins’ chaste, mostly passive, heroine. Why, therefore, did Rawlins decide to call his heroine Evadne? Is it a further example of Rawlins willingness to try and take advantage of another playwright’s success and of his inability to produce a remotely original piece of drama? However I think one should remember that there are numerous references to Greek and Roman Gods and myths throughout the play and in Greek mythology there is a woman named Evadne, whose husband, Capaneus, is killed in the Trojan War. Evadne throws herself onto her husband’s funeral pyre and burns with him. I think it is more likely that Rawlins wanted his Renaissance audience to make comparisons with this example of virtuous, obedient womanhood, rather than the murderous, adulterous and corrupt female that Fletcher and Beaumont portray in The Maid’s Tragedy.
Editorial Techniques / Decisions and Problems Experienced.
v I have silently standardised and modernised all spellings and punctuation i.e. the accidentals, to help the modern readers. However words such as thee, thou and hath etc have been retained as The Rebellion is a Renaissance play and should be read as such. Any words that are now obscure or rare are explained in the Glossary and Notes.
words have been left in the original order. However the play is described as
being “partly in verse” and through the play I have tried to create iambic
pentameter where appropriate through re-lineation. Iambic pentameter is verse
that is ten beats per line, with a pattern of stressed and unstressed
syllables. Iambic Pentameter should be used when a romantic or intelligent
though is being conveyed and always by the upper classes, except if they are
talking to or pretending to be working class or their departure from verse
signals an unstable state of mind.
Rawlins does not seem to understand or is not interested in this literary rule so as an editor it has been a difficult and sometime impossible task to create perfect verse. I have tried to create the illusion of verse where it should have been employed but the lines do not always consist of ten beats as they should. Therefore I ask the reader to remember the principles of when iambic pentameter should be used and not let the imperfect verse hinder their enjoyment of the play.
The only time I have not employed re-lineation is where Rawlins has used rhyming couplets as this would obviously remove the impact that Rawlins had tried to create, for example Cupid’s speech (III.3.23-44).
the play I have used the spellings of the characters’ names as it appears in
the Dramatis Personae. For example in the original text Machvile is also spelt
Machville and Machvil. It is likely that Rawlins meant Machiavelli, or at least
wanted the reader to make the connection between his villain and the
arch-villain of the period.
the original text Sebastiano is referred to as Giovanno in all the stage
directions etc. I have changed them all to Sebastiano as that is his real name.
When he enters I have stated whether he is dressed as Giovanno or the French
have added or modified stage directions where necessary to enable the reader or
any potential performers to be able to visualise how the play would have been
performed in 1637.
v In the later scenes of the play Virmine is referred to as either Tailor 2 or Tailor 3 in the stage directions. I have amended this to Virmine when the language used / topic of conversation suggested that it was Virmine speaking rather than one of the other, minor Tailors.
By Thomas Rawlins
To the Worshipful, and his honoured kinsman, Robert Ducie of Aston, in the County of Stafford Esquire: Son to Sir Robert Ducie, Knight and Baronet Deceased
King of Spain
Governor of Spain
Antonio, a Count
Machvile, a Count
Alerzo, a Spanish Colonel
Fulgentio, a Spanish Colonel
Pandolpho, a Spanish Colonel
Auristella, Machvile’s wife
Nurse, Evadne’s attendant
Raymond, Moore General of the French Army
Firenzo, a French Colonel
Gilberty, a French Colonel
Leonis, a French Colonel
Philippa, Raymond’s wife
Petruchio, Governor of Filford
Sebastiano, Petruchio’s son, disguised as a tailor called Giovanno
Virmine, Old Tailor’s man
Aurelia, Petruchio’s daughter
Captain of the Bandetty
Act One, Scene 1
he appear fresh as a bloom that newly
(as they salute Antonio Machvile enters unnoticed)
ambitious were to lose his life so
any else but young Antonio.
me revenge, till I become a hill
I might fall and crush them into air.
(Machvile exits behind hangings)
fleeting clouds, dash all our hopes of payment:
superstitious cringe. Adieu.
it not a hopeful* Lord? Nature to him has chained the people’s hearts. Each
to his Saint offers a form of prayer for young Antonio.
except Machvile who walks to centre stage
wilt not burst with rage to see these slaves
Confusion and the list of all diseases
Wait upon your lives till you be ripe for
which when it gapes may it devour you all.
Monopoly. Be more a man. Think. Think.
In thy brain’s mint coin all thy thoughts to mischief
That may act revenge at full. Plot. Plot.
Tumultuous thoughts incorporate. Beget
A lump how e’er deformed that may at length
Like to a cub licked by the careful dam
Become like to my wishes perfect vengeance.
aye Antonio; nay all
Death sit[s] upon my brow; let every frown
a soul that stops me of a crown.
Act One, Scene 2
tailor yet returned, Nurse?
passionate time with mine? Or has she
Beams of thirsty love upon a tailor,
myself born high? I must know more.
‘tis a youth jocund* as sprightly May; one that will do discreetly* with a
wife, bord* her without direction from the stars or counsel her from the moon
to do for physic*. No he’s a back … Oh ‘tis a back indeed.
your talk. One knocks – go see.
Tailor! Fie, blush my too tardy* soul!
To that our House boasts great. I’d fly into
His arms with as much speed as an air cutting
Arrow to the stake. But oh he comes! My
Enter Nurse and Sebastiano, as Giovanno, holding a gown
she is and walks* – yet in sense strong enough to maintain argument she’s
under my cloak, for the best part of a lady, as this age goes, is her
clothes. In what reckoning ought we tailors to be esteemed then that are the
master workmen to correct Nature? You shall have a Lady in a dialogue with
some Gallant*, touching his suit, the better part of a man, so suck the
breath that names the skilful tailor as if it nourished her. Another Dona*
fly from the close embracement of her Lord to be all over measured by her
tailor. One will be sick forsooth* and bid her maid deny her to this Don,
that Earl, the other Marquise, nay to a Duke, yet let her tailor lace and
unlace her gown, so round her skirts to fit the fashion. Here’s one has in my
sight made many a noble Don to hang the head. Dukes and Marquises, three a
morning break their fasts on her denials. Yet I, her tailor, blessed be the
kindness of my loving stare, am ushered. She smiles and says I have stayed
too long and then finds fault with some slight stitch, that eye-let hole’s
too close, then must I use my Bodkin*, ‘twill never please else; all will not
do, I must take it home for no cause but to bring it her again next morning.
We tailors are the men, spite of the Proverb, Ladies cannot live without. It
is we that please them best, in their commodity: there’s no magic in our
habits. Tailors can prevail ‘bove him: honour styles best of man.
mean you Madam?
go. Duck* I’ll be here anon. I will Dove*.
your best leisure.
Was the reward. And yet, dull-daring sir,
By your favour no. He must be more than
can attempt to injure so much
Thought of such offence.
(aside) When Sebastiano, clad in conquering
Steel and in a phrase able to kill, or
From a coward’s heart banish the thought of
Fear, wooed me, won not so much upon my
Captive soul as this youth’s silence does. Help
Me some power out of this tangling maze:
shall be lost else.
their soft hearts; Mine must not be thy slave.
with adoration deified*.
my body warmth. You breath
let me lose all external being.
gently shakes Evadne
say you love her.
by some curious artist in a ring,
hand of careful Nature into such
Bow the worship of the thankful pays the
Preserver of his life and grows? But thou,
Unthankful man, in scorn of me, to love
Calendar of many years.
Rite the heathens used to pay their Gods*, I
Offer up a life, that until now ne’er
a price, made dear because you love it.
Devout vow humbly upon my knees, that
Though the thunder of my brother’s rage should
Force divorce, yet in my soul to love you;
Witness all the winged inhabitants of
Be thyself again.
Exit Sebastiano. He and Antonio cross paths.
he that passed?
something in his face I sure should know.
me fight for my loved Country’s cause.
bids me pray and on his altar make
Act One Scene 3
Raymond, Philippa, Leonis, Gilberty and Fyrenzo
Cries of stand offstage
the drum cease whilst we embrace our love.
Raymond embraces and kisses Philippa
My honoured Lord!
Duty commands I pay it back again,
will waste me into smoke else. Can my
back mine. (They kiss). So go pitch our tent. We’ll
friendly enemy! How say you Lords?
Issue of the brain of Jove, Governess of
Arms and Arts, Minerva, or a selected
from a troop of Amazons?
She is a mine of valour.
spare your praises ‘til like Bradamante *,
The heaving of his Master’s hand. My heart
Runs through my arm and when I deal a blow it
Sinks a soul. My sword flies nimbler than the
Bolts of Jove and wounds as deep. Spain, thy proud host,
Shall feel death has bequeathed his office to my steel.
Act One Scene 4
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, Old Tailor, Virmine and two tailors
bullies*, come. We must forsake the use of nimble shears and now betake us
to our Spanish needles, stiletto* blades, and prove the proverb lies, lies in
his throat: one tailor can erect sixteen, nay more, of upstart Gentleman
known by their clothes and leave enough materials in hell to damn a broker.
to the wars, Virmine. What says thou to that?
Nothing but that I would rather stay at home. Oh the good penny breakfast that I shall lose! Master, good Master, let me alone to live with honest John, noble John Black*.
Will thou disgrace thy worthy calling, Virmine?
but I am afraid my calling will disgrace me! I shall be gaping* for my
morning loaf and dram of Ale. Aye, I shall! And now and then look for a
cabbage leaf or an odd remnant to clothe my bashful buttocks.
Yes marry*; why I hope poor Virmine must be fed and will be fed or I’ll torment you.
Master, I take privilege from your love to hearten on my fellows.
Aye, Aye do, do good boy.
Exit Old Tailor
my bold fellows, let us eternalise*
as the years renew, so shall our fame
Come Virmine, come.
Nay if Virmine slip from the back of a tailor, spit him with a Spanish needle or torment him in the louses*. Engin*: your two thumb nails*.
Exit all but Sebastiano
The city seiged and thou thus chained in airy
Fetters of a Lady’s love. It must not
Be. Stay. ‘Tis Evadne’s love: Her life is
With the city ruined if the French become
Victorious. Evadne must not
Die. Her chaste name that once made cold, now
Doth my blood inflame.
Act Two Scene 1
A table and chairs in the centre of the stage. Enter (after a shout crying Antonio) Governor and Machvile
take their spacious throats, we shall ere long
by a number higher.
substitute? Then why should he
the Counsel board* he'll break into a
Enter Antonio, Alerzo, Fulgentio and Pandolpho.
more need, my worthy partners, in
haughty Moor, upon whose sword sits
Like the Army of another Xerxes*
the o'er burdened earth grown at their weight.
Service with loss, 'tis good to deal with
Policy. He's no true soldier that deals
Headless blows with the endangering of
His life; [and] may walk in a shade of safety,
Yet o'erthrow his towering enemy.
Great Alexander* made the then known world
Slave to his powerful will, more by the
Help of political wit than by the
Rough compulsion of the sword. Troy*, that
Endured the Grecians' ten years siege, by policy
Was fired, and became like to a lofty
on a flame.
with the breath of policy been blown
As yet their ships have not o’erspread the sea -
send a regiment that may with speed
we open our Gates, and with a strong assault
What says Antonio?
(aside) It takes:
Revenge I hug thee.
Antonio! Your counsel.
yon tribunal, I would crave, my senses
a soul guarded with subtle sinews.
Wondered at, as can applaud or lend a
Willing ear to that my blushes do betray
been tardy to hear? Your childish policy.
Liberty! To abuse a man of so much
Merit is not seemly in you. Nay, I'll
prophetic fear whispered in my heart:
From the sun like diamonds, or as the
Glorious gilder of the day*, should deign
A lower visit. Then my warm blood, that
Used to play like summer, felt a change.
Gray-bearded winter froze my very soul,
Till I became like the Pyrenean
Hills*, wrapped in a robe of ice. My attic
froze me into a statue.
And I, poor I only, survived to threat
Defiance in the monsieur's
teeth*, and stand
And unarmed, I'd through their bragging host and
Pay my life a sacrifice to death, for
My loved Country's safety.
Fulgentio, thou hast not lost thy faith?
No, I’m reformed. He’s valiant.
Antonio your counsel.
Aye, your counsel.
foes increase to an unreckoned number:
Half their Army. ‘Tis my counsel we strike
A league*. ‘Tis wisdom to sue peace where powerful
threatens ruin, lest [we] repent too late.
‘Tis God-like counsel.
And becomes the tongue of young Antonio.
let me tell you, you have lost
Term you a coward.
Nay more, since by your oratory you
Strive to rob your country of a glorious
Conquest, that may to after times beget
A fear, even with the thought, should awe
The trembling world. You are a traitor.
Ha, my Lord? Coward and traitor? ‘Tis a
Damned lie and in the heart of him dares say
It again I’ll write his error.
(aside) ‘Tis as I’d have it.
Brave spirited Lord.
The mirror of a Soldier.
are you moved first? Has the deserved name
thou liest. Had thou a heart of
They all fight in a confused manner. Antonio kills the Governor and injures Machvile.
The Governor! Killed by Antonio’s hand?
No, by the hand of justice. Fly, fly my Lord.
for a surgeon to dress Count Machvile.
I repent too late my rash contempt.
wounded, else, coward Antonio,
as thunder. May thou die burdened
down to Hell, beneath the reach of
Someone shouts for Antonio
choke your rash officious throats.
to that shrine our liking shall erect.
Act Two Scene 2
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, Evadne and Nurse
‘Tis a neat gown and fashionable, Madam; is it not, love?
Upon my virginity, wonderful handsome. Dear, when we are married I’ll have such a one. Shall I not chicken? Ha.
What else, kind nurse?
Truly you tailors are the most sanctified members of a Kingdom. How many crooked bodies and untoward bodies have you set upright, that they go now so straight in their lives and conversation as the proudest of them all.
That’s certain; none prouder.
How mean you sir?
Faith, Madam, your crooked movables* in artificial bodies that rectify the deformities of nature’s over-plus as bunching banks, or scarcity as scanty shoulders, are the proudest creatures. You shall have them jet it* with an undaunted boldness; for the truth is what they want in substance they have in air. They will scold the tailor out of his art and impute the defect of nature to his want of skill though his labour make her appearance pride worthy.
Well said my bird’s-eye*. Stand for the credit of tailors whilst thou livest; wilt thou not chuck? Ha, sayst thou my dear?
I were ungrateful else.
pray leave us; your presence makes your sweet
Pray be won to leave us here.
your will’s obeyed. Yet I can hardly pass from thee, my love, at such a
Your eager love may be termed dotage; for shame confess your self to less expressions! Leave my Lady.
kiss and then I go; so. Farewell my duck*.
Nurse kisses Sebastiano and then exits
she has left a scent to poison me.
than Pygmalion’s*? Or play with the
Come, you are loath to part with’t, ‘tis so sweet.
say you, Madam? A muster of
Teeth. Excuse my boldness to defer your
Longing; thus I am new created with
Sebastiano and Evadne kiss
My gaping pores will never be
Satisfied. Again – they are still hungry.
dear friend, let not thy lovely person
smother that harsh breath.
Again I counter-check it.
They kiss again. Enter Antonio pursued; seeing them and stands amazed
Oh sister, ha! What killing sight is this!
Cannot be she. Sister!
Oh my dear friend; my brother. We’re undone!
girl! Lighter than wind or air!
me not half so much as thee forgetful.
Sir, if on me this language, I must tell you, you are too rash to censure. My unworthiness, that makes her seem so ugly in your eyes, perhaps hangs in these clothes; and is shifted off with them. I am as noble, but that I hate to make comparisons, as any you can think worthy to be called her husband.
Shred of a slave, thou liest!
Sir I am hasty too; yet in the presence of my mistress can use a temper.
Brave; your mistress!
Enter Machvile with officers.
hold on him! Here we presume to meet
wrath of Heaven fall heavy on us.
Capital treason ‘gainst the King and Realm.
prison with him.
(aside) ‘Tis but an error: treason do you call it, to kill the Governor in heat of blood and not intended? For my Evadne’s sake, something I’ll do shall save his life.
To prison with him.
Farewell, Evadne. As thou lovest the peace
Of our dead ancestors, cease to love so
Loathed a thing: a tailor. Why, ‘tis the scorn
Of all! Therefore be ruled by thy departing
do not mix with so much baseness.
Exit Antonio with officers
Lady we here enjoin you to
Your chamber as a prisoner to wait
A further censure: you brother’s fault has
Pulled a punishment upon your head, which
what you please, your tyranny can’t bear
constancy shall tyranny control.
Exit Machvile and Evadne left as Antonio and officers enter right. Cries of rescue offstage as Sebastiano, as Giovanno, and Tailors storm the officers and, after a scuffle, rescue Antonio.
Enter Machvile and he is approached by Officer 1
troop of Tailors have by force taken
Unto some secret place: we can’t find him.
dost thou know what thou has said?
Oh my crossed stars!
But die, though he had no fault but innocence.
Act Two Scene 3
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, Antonio and the Old Tailor
Can this kindness merit your love? Do I deserve your sister?
sister! Worthy tailor; ‘tis a gift
Have not I…
no further! I confess you have been
Sir, this may, but…
(interrupting) My sister, thou would say, most worthy
Tailor. She is not mine to give. Honour
Spoke in my dying Father: ‘tis a
Sentence that’s registered here, in
Antonio’s heart. I must not wed her but
To one in blood calls honour Father. Prithee*
Be my friend, forget I have a sister;
In love I’ll be more than a Brother; though
Not to mingle blood.
May I not call her mistress?
As a servant: far from the thoughts of wedlock.
I’m your friend, and proud of it. You shall find that though a tailor, I’ve an honest mind. (to Old Tailor) Pray, Master, help my Lord into a Suit; his life lies at you mercy.
I’ll warrant you.
But for thy men –
they are proud in that they rescued you.
our needful calling shall be answered:
A noble practitioner in our mystery*.
Cheer up Antonio. Take him in – the rest will make him merry. I’ll go try the temper of a sword upon some shield that guards a foe. Pray for my good success.
Come, come my Lord. Leave melancholy to
Hired slaves that murder at a price.
(interrupting) No more, flatter not my sin.
You are too strict a convertite*, let’s in.
Exit Antonio and Old Tailor
Act Two Scene 4
After a confused noise enter Raymond, Leonis, Gilberty hastily
What means this capering* echo? Or from
did this so lively counterfeit of
‘Tis from the city.
cannot be! Their voice should out-roar Jove*.
A shout offstage
‘Tis certainly from thence.
deceived, poor Spaniards’ fear has changed their
They’re planet struck.
‘Tis from a jocund* fleet, my genius
Prompts me. They have already ploughed the
Unruly seas and with their breasts*, proof ‘gainst
The battering waves, dashed the big billows
Into angry froth and ‘spite of the
Contentious full mouthed gods of sea and wind,
Have reached the city frontiers and
Begirt* her navigable skirts.
Again ‘tis so.
creed’s another way: I have no faith
Alarm offstage. Enter a bloodied soldier.
Here’s one, now we shall know. Ha! He appears like one composed of horror.
What speaks thy troubled front?
Speak, crimson Meteor.
Speak, Prodigy, or on my sword thou fallest.
bold Spaniards, setting aside all cold
of the number our Army is
Than great Jove* affrights the crimson world
With when the air is turned to mutiny.
Villain, thou liest; ‘twere madness to believe
Thee. Foolish Spain may like those Giants that
Heaped hill on hill, mountain on mountain to
Jove* from Heaven who with a hand of
of their ambitious arms became their
Rubbish of their ruined cities.
Enter another soldier
What! Another? Thy hasty news.
The daring enemies have through their gates
a victorious sally*; all our troops
Made a dishonoured flight: Hark!
Foe makes hitherward.
Run to my tent, fetch my Philippa.
Slave why mov’st thou not?
The enemy’s upon us.
Raymond strikes Soldier 2
Shall I send thy coward soul down the vaults
Of Horror? Fly, villain, or thou diest.
Alarm offstage. Enter Machvile, Spanish Colonels with Philippa as prisoner. Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, and Tailors
one post to my castle and conduct
wait upon her beauty. Fly, let not
thou think proud man that Philippa’s heart
Bring all the rough tortures from the world’s childhood
To this hour invented, and on my
Resolute body, proof against pain,
Practised Sicilian tyranny, my
Giant thoughts should like a cloud of wind,
smoke, mingle with heaven and
Shall give you cause of triumph.
Before Heaven, a fiery girl.
A masculine spirit.
my Philippa: her rich colour’s fled
Have made an anvil to forge diseases
she’s lost herself with her fled beauty.
To our churlish foe than bashful Titan
To the Eastern world. Spaniards, she is a
Conquest Rome, when her two-necked Eagles awed
The world, would have swum through their own blood to
Purchase! Nor must you enjoy that gem, the
Superstitious Gods would quarrel for, but
This Moor speaks truth wrapped in a voice of thunder.
my Philippa, what untutored slave
the epitome of Hercules*: No
What pains thou takest to praise thine enemy.
sin to rob him that has wasted so
Made me captive. Nor can he boast ‘twas
In an easy combat; for my good sword,
Now ravished from mine arm, forced crimson drops,
like a gory sweat, buried his
were skilled in his effigies, as drunk
Drawing of the rueful curtain they saw
him their error.
common soldier owner of a strength
My Lord, you must strike quick and sure…
Why pause you? My Philippa must not stay;
We have the day.
till you conquer me, which if my arm
Shall spin your labour to an ample length.
Upon him then!
is dishonourable combat: My
Tailor, you are too saucy.
Untutored groom! Mechanic slave*!
You have protection by the Governor’s presence, else my plumed ostriches, ‘tis not your feathers, more weighty than your heads, should stop my vengeance, but I’d text* my wrong in bloody characters upon your pampered flesh.
By heaven I would.
You’d be advised and render up your life a sacrifice to patience.
Musk-cat,* I’d make your civet* worship stink first in your perfumed buffe*.
Let’s reward his boldness.
Whence this rashness?
The colonels attack Sebastiano
Blessed occasion: let’s on ‘em.
The French whisper and make to attack the Spanish, who turn on their guard and beat them off.
Act Three Scene 1
Enter Machvile, Spanish Colonels, Sebastiano as Giovanno with Raymond and Philippa as prisoners. Enter all Tailors
A tailor, a tailor, a tailor!
Raymond, you're now my prisoner: Blind chance has favoured where your thoughts and hope she meant to ruin from our discord, which Heaven has made victorious, you meant to strike a harmony should glad you.
Machvile, Fulgentio and Alerzo whisper amongst themselves
'Tis not to be borne: a tailor!
'Twas an affront galls to me think of. Besides his saucy valour might have ruined all our forward fortunes had the French been stronger. Let him be banished!
shall be so. My fears are built on grounds
Antonio, whose sister we will banish
pretence of love to justice. 'Tis a
Her goods I'll give the poor, whose tongues are in
Their bellies, which being full is tipped* with
prayers; but empty a falling
Deliver up your prisoner.
So. Now we command on forfeit of thy
Life you be not seen in any ground our
Master title circles within three days.
a factious spirit we must not nourish:
Your conceited worth, you sting your country's
Breasts that nursed your valour.
This my reward?
More than thy worth deserves
Pomander box,* thou liest.
Go purge yourself: your Country vomits you.
Slaves, you're not worth my anger.
Go vent your spleen 'mongst satirists - pen a pamphlet and call it 'The Scourge of Greatness'.
Or 'Spain's Ingratitude'.
Ye are not worth my breath, else I should curse
You. But I must weep, not that I part from
unthankful Spain, but my Evadne.
Temper 'spite of woe.
(to Raymond) My house shall be your prison. Attend him, Colonels.
Please you walk?
Exit all except the Tailors
My servant banished!
Famished, master? Nay, faith! And a tailor come to be famished! 'Tis a hard world: no bread in this world here hoe, to save the renowned corpse of a tailor from famishing. 'Tis no matter for drink, give me bread!
Thou hast a gut would swallow a peck* loaf.
Aye marry would; with vantage; I tell truth, and as the proverb says, shame the Devil - if our Hell afford a Devil, but I see none unless he appear in a delicious remnant of nimmed* satin, and by my faith that's a courteous devil that suffers the brokers* to hang him in their ragged wardrobe; and used to sell his devilship for money. I tell truth. A tailor and lie? Faith, I scorn that!
Leave your discovery.
Master, a traveller you know is famous for lying and having as travelled as far as Hell, may I not make a description of the unknown land?
My brain is busy. Sebastiano must not tread an unknown land to find out a grave. Unfortunate Sebastiano: first to lose thyself in a disguise unfitting for thy birth, and then thy country for thy too much valour. There's danger in being virtuous in this Age led by those sinful actors. The plunged stage of this vice-bearing world would headlong fall but charitable virtue bears up all. I must invent. I have it! So: as he's a tailor he is banished [from] Spain, as Sebastiano is revoked again.
Act Three Scene 2
subtle are my springes*: they take all. With
Laugh at you folly. I have a wire set
the Moor and his ambitious consort
What must she second?
Art thou there, my love? We're in a path that
Leads us to a height; we may confront the
Sun and with a breath extinguish common
Stars; be but thou ruled, the light that does create
Day to this city must be derived from us.
You fire my soul and to my airy
Wings add quicker feathers. What tasks would not
run to be called Queen? Did the life blood
Stand as a quick* wall to stop my passage
To a throne, I'd with a poniard open
Their azure* veins and squeeze their active blood
Up into clods till they become as
Cold as winter's snow, and as a bridge
Upon their trunks I'd go.
Our souls are twins and thirst with equal heat
deity: Kings are in all things Gods
be a Queen what danger would I run?
So I might sit above the lesser stars
Of small nobility but for a day.
'Tis to be done, love, a nearer way*. I
Have already with the sugared baits of
liberality and all the
Catch the hearts o'th giddy multitude - which
If it fails, as cautious policy
Forbids, I bid too strongly on their drunk
votes - I'd have thee break with my
Himself shall rule; so that if need compel
Us to take arms we may have forces
From the realm of France to seat us in the
Chair of Government.
I n'er shall endure to walk as equal
With proud Philippa. No. My ambitious
Soul boils in a thirsty flame of
Total glory: I must be all, without
A second flame to dim our lustre.
Still my very soul. Thinkest thou I can endure
[A] competitor, or let an Ethiope
Sit by Machvile’s side as partner in his
Honour? No, as I have seen in the
of players, one that did act the
Became ravished, and on Raymond mean to
Plot what he did one the cavilling* boys of
Oedipus, whilst we grasp the whole dignity.
As how, sweet Machvile?
is not ripe, my love. The King, I hear,
Order that Count Antonio, once
Being taken, be sent to Filford Mill;
There ground to death.
What for his wife?*
Thy envy? She I have banished and her goods,
guard a shower of curses from my head,
policy. Let’s home to our designs:
Shall be dissolved to flattery for a crown.
Attend your Lady.
So her forward spleen,
Tickled with the thought of greatness, makes the
Scene’s attempts run smooth. The haughty Moor shall
Be the lader* on whose servile back I’ll
Mount to greatness. If calm peace deny me
Easy way, rough war shall force it. Which done,
Raymond and his Philippa must go seek
An Empire in Elysium*: For
To rule predominance belongs alone
To me: slaves are unworthy of rule. What
State would set a crown upon a mule?
Act Three Scene 3
stage, disguised sitting in a closet
My soul is heavy and my eyelids feel
weighty power of Morpheus*: Each
Weak supporters of my inward man crack
As beneath the weight of Atlas’* burden.
A sudden change! How my bleared* eyelids
Strive to force a sleep ‘gainst nature. Oh yon
Powers that rule the better thoughts, if you have
Ought to act on my frail body, let it
Be with eagle’s speed, or if your Wills so
Please let my fore past and undigested
Wrongs o’erwhlem my thoughts, and sink me to the
Ground with their no less than death’s remembrance.
Cease, bastard slave, to clog my senses with
The leaden weights of an unwilling sleep,
Unless your raw-boned brother joins his force
And makes a separation twixt my airy
Soul and my earthly body. I am
O’ercome. Heaven work your wills; my breath
Submits to this as it would submit to death.
Soft music plays as Cupid descends until he is in mid-air.
Sleep entranced man, but be
Wakeful in thy fancy: see
Love hath left his palace fair
And beats his wings against the air
To ease thy panting breasts of ill.
Love is a physician, our will
Must be obeyed. Therefore with haste
To Flanders fly; the echoing blast
Of fame shall usher thee along
And leave thee pestered in a throng
Of searching troubles, which shall be
But bug-bears* to thy constancy.
Enter Death from left and Aurelia from right. Death strikes three times at Antonio but Aurelia diverts them. Exit Death and Aurelia.
this same shadow seems to be
maid that seemed to conquer Death
Dotes on thy air; reports hath been
Lavish in praising thee unseen.
Make haste to Flanders: time will be
Accused of slothfulness if she
Be longer tortured. Do not stay,
My power shall guide thee on thy way.
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, and the Old Tailor
He is asleep.
See how he struggles, as if some visions
Had assumed a shape fuller of horror
Than his troubled thoughts.
His conscience gripes him to purpose: see he
Wakes: Let us observe.
Stay gentle power, leave hostage that thy
Promise thou’lt perform, and I will offer
To thy deity more than my lazy
has offered yet. But stay, Antonio:
Dream? An airy vision framed by strangling
to delude weak sense with a gay
By thy fears, it may force hence this
Midnight’s shade of grief and gild it with a
Morn as full as joy as does bright Phoebus* to
Our eastern world, when blushing he arises
From the lap of sea-green Thetis* to give
new day birth.
Why, how now friend? What, talking to yourself?
Oh Giovanno, ‘tis my impartial thoughts
rise in war ‘gainst my guilty conscience.
Be more a man! Shrink not beneath a weight so light a child may bear it. For believe me, if my prophetic fear deceive me not, you had done an act Spain should forever praise had you killed Machvile too.
As how good Master? I must call you so;
This is your livery.
Oh you’re a noble tailor. But to Machvile: it was my chance, being sent for by his wife to take the measure of their noble prisoner, who when I came was busy being placed into a room where I might easily hear them talk of crowns and kingdoms and of two that should be partners in this end of Spain.
Who were they?
Machvile and Raymond. At last Machvile laughed saying, ‘for this I made the Governor to cross Antonio at the Counsel Board, knowing that one, if not both, should die’.
Did he say this?
He did, and added more under a feigned show of love to justice: Banished your sister!
Is Evadne banished?
She is, and as I guess, to Flanders. Her woman too has left her.
Nay, droop not, friend. Host, pray tell proud Machvile I have a sword left to chastise a traitor. Come, let’s go seek Evadne.
Oh Antonio, the sudden grief almost distracts thy friend, but come, let’s go each several* and meet at Filford. If thou findest Evadne bear her unto the castle.
Farewell good Master.
you honour me.
I’ll to the King. This treason may become
Like to a disease out of the reach of physic*
And may infect past cure if let alone.
Exit Old Tailor
Act Three Scene 4
Enter Raymond and Philippa
Erect thy head my Raymond, be more tall
Than daring Atlas, but more safely wise.
Sustain no burden but the politic
Care of being great till thou obey the
City’s Axeltree* and wave at it as thou list*.
thou no skill in magic, that thou hits
Like nature’s miracle that draws the steel
With unresisted violence. I cannot
Keep a secret to myself, but thy
Prevailing rhetoric ravishes and
Leaves my breast like to an empty casket,
That once was blessed with keeping of a jewel
I dare not trust the air with, it was so
Precious: pray be careful.
You do not doubt me?
No. Were you a woman made of such coarse
Ingredients as the common, which in
Our trivial phrase we call mere, woman, I
not trust thee with a cause so weighty
This hair, that when ‘tis gone a lynx cannot
Miss it*. But you are …
I want expressions! ‘Tis not common words
Can speak you truly. You are more than woman.
Lord you know my temper, and how to
I must be gone and post a messenger.
France must supply what wants to make thee great:
An army, my Philippa, which these people,
Snoring in pride of their last victory,
Do not so much as dream on. Nor shall, till
be forced to yield their voices at our
Oh ‘tis an age! I’d rather have it said
Philippa than a prisoner were dead.
Act Three Scene 5
Enter Judge and Officers with Antonio, Petruchio and Aurelia meet him with servants
Captain Petruchio, take this condemned
Man into your charge: it is Antonio,
Once a Spanish Count, till his rash folly;
With his life made forfeit with his honour,
He was found travelling to your castle. ‘Twas
Heaven’s will that his own feet should with a
Willing pace conduct him to his ruin.
For the murder he must be ground to death
In Filford Mill, of which you are the
Governor. Here’s my Commission, in its end
Gives strength to yours; he’s your charge. Farewell. His
Death must be with speed.
Exit Judge and Officers
Deceive me not, good glasses. Your lights in
My esteem never till now was precious; ‘tis
The same, aye ‘tis the very same I sleeping saw.
this the man Fame speaks so nobly of?
Could say he knew thee. I must dissemble it.
Come, Sir, to my castle.
Fie on you, Sir! To kill a Governor! It is a fact death cannot appear too horrible to punish.
this be truth? Oh shallow, shallow man!
Substance in a cloud of thickened smoke, as
Truth hid in a dream. Yes, there is truth, that
a scroll fetched from an Oracle
Dreams that speak all of joy do turn to grief
And such bad Fate deludes my light belief.
Away with him!
Exit all except Aurelia
Oft have I heard my brother, with a tongue
Proud of the Office, praise this lovely Lord.
And my trapped soul did with as eager haste
Draw in the breath, and now: Oh Aurelia,
Buried with him must all thy joy thou hast
Forever sleep, and with a pale consumption
Pitying him, will thou thy self be ruined?
He must not die. If there be any way
to the distressed I will find it.
And lead her to a path whose secret track
May guide both him and me unto our safety.
kind, good Wits. I never until now
help at need this little world you live
I hav’t, blessed brain; now shall a woman’s wit
with Fate, and if my plot but hit.
I must forsake lest my Antonio fall.
Act Four Scene 1
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno, mad
Not find Evadne! Sure some wanton wind
Has snatched her from the earth into the air;
Smooth zephyrs* faines* the tresses of her hair,
Whilst slick Favonions* plays the fawning slaves
And hourly dies*, making her breasts his grave.
Oh false Evadne! Is Giovanno’s love,
That has out-done all merit for thy sake,
So light that wind out-weighs it? No, no, no.
Evadne is all virtue, sweet as the
Breath of roses and as chaste as virgin
Lilies in their infancy. Down you
Deluding Ministers of Air: Evadne
Is not light though she be fair; Dissolve that
Counterfeit. Ha, ha, ha, ha. See how they
Shrink? Why so. Now I will love you. Go search
Into the hollows of the earth and find
My love, or I will chain you up to
See, see; who’s this? Oh I
Since his father’s death, into a cloak of
Gold out-shines the sun. The headstrong horses
Of licentious youth have broke their reigns and
Drawn him through the signs of all libidinousness,
See from the whorish front of Capra*;
He’s tumbling down as low as beggary.
Oh, are you come grim tartor*? Radamonte*,
Go ask of Pluto* if he have not ta’en
Evadne to his smoky commonwealth
ravished her? Be gone. Why stir you not?
(from offstage) Help! A rape!
(from offstage) Stop her mouth!
Who calls for help? ‘Tis my Evadne! Aye,
It was her voice that gave the echo life,
That cried a rape: Devil, dost love a wench?
Who was thy Pander*, ha? What saucy fiend
Dared lay his unpared fangs on my Evadne?
Come, I’ll swim unarmed over Acheron*
And sink grim Charon* in his fiery boat.
(from offstage) Murder! A rape!
I come, I come!
Sebastiano exits left as the Bandits enter right dragging Evadne by her hair, she drops a scarf centre stage. Bandits and Evadne exit left as Sebastiano enters right.
I cannot find her yet: the King of Flames
Protests she is not there, but hang him, rogue!
They say he’ll lie. Oh, how my glutted spleen
Tickles to think how I have the paid the slave;
I made him lead me into every hole.
Ha, ha, ha, what crying was there there? Here
On a wheel, turned by a Fury’s hand,
Hangs a distracted statesman, that had spent
The little wit Heaven to strange purpose
Lent him, to suppress rights, make beggars and
means to be a traitor, ha, ha, ha.
Curses of so many heirs his extortion
undone, sate to the chin in a warm
A draught passed through his throat; he fed upon
His God, but being angry scalded his
Chops. Right against him stood a fooled Gallant,
Chained unto a post and lashed by Folly
For his want of wit. The reeling drunkard
And plump glutton stood making of faces
Close by Tantalus*, but drank and fed on
Air. The whore-master, tied to a painted
Punk*, was by a Fury termed insatiate
Lust, whipped with a blade of fire, and here –
What’s here? ‘Tis my Evadne’s veil , ‘tis hers
I know’t. Some slave has ravished my Evadne!
Well, there breathes not such an impious slave in
Hell. Nay, it’s hers; I know it too, too plain.
Your breath is lost; ‘tis hers. You speak in vain.
Act Four Scene 2
Thunder and Lightning.
Enter Bandits dragging Evadne by her hair
Come, bring her forward. Tie her to that tree; each man shall have his turn. Come minion*, you must quench the raging flames of my concupiscence*. What, do you weep? You puritanical punk*! I shall tickle mirth into you by and by. Trotter, good Trotter, post unto my cell, make compound of muscadine* and eggs. For the truth is I am a giant in my promises but in the act a Pigmy: I am old and cannot do as I have done. Good Trotter, make all convenient speed.
Faith Master, if you can’t, here’s them that can ferret in a cunny* burrow without a provocative, I’ll warrant you. Good Master, let me begin the health.
No more I say: it is a parcel of excellent mutton, I’ll cut it up myself. Come minion.
The Captain takes out his dagger, winds Evadne’s hair round it and sticks it into the ground.
Thunder and Lightning
Kill me, oh kill me. Rather let me die
Than live to see the jewel that adorns the
Souls of virtuous virgins ravished from
Me. Do not add sin to sin, and at a
Price that ruins me and not enriches you,
Purchase damnation. Do not, do not do’t.
Sheath here your sword, and my departing soul,
Like your good angel, shall solicit Heaven
To dash out your offences. Let my flight
Be pure and spotless. Do not injure that
Manhood would blush to think on; it is all
A maid’s divinity. Wanting her life
She’s a fair corpse, wanting her chastity
A spotted soul of living infamy.
A very voice.
Oh Captain, Captain, yonder’s the mad Orlando* the furious, and I think he takes me for – what do you call him?
Aye, Aye, Meder – the Devil Meder. He was so noodled!* Me – oh here he comes! I’ll be gone.
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno
Stay Satyr*, stay. You are too light of foot.
I cannot reach your paces, prithee stay.
What goddess have you there? Sure ‘tis Evadne!
Are you the dragons that ne’er sleep but watch
golden fruit of the Hesperides*?
He beats them off and unbinds Evadne
thou preserver of near lost Evadne!
(aside) ‘Tis, ‘tis she. She must not know I’m mad.
(aside) Assist me some good Power, it is my friend.
Make me but wise enough to resolve myself.
(aside) It may be ‘tis not she; I’ll ask her name.
What are you called, sweet goddess?
They that know me mortal, term me Evadne.
‘Tis she! Aye, aye, ‘tis she.
Pray you Sir, unto the bond of what I
Owe you, which is the poor distressed virgin’s
Life, add this one debt: what are you?
Not worth your knowledge: I am a poor, a
Very, very, poor despised thing. But
Say, I pray, are you sure your name’s Evadne?
(aside) ‘Tis questionless my tailor.
I am she. Receive me to your arms,
Not altered in my heart though in my clothes.
I do believe you, indeed I do. But
- I don’t! Are you a maid, a virgin?
Tell a lie. Speak. I shall love you though that
I am as spotless, thank your happy self
That saved me from the robbers, as the child
Which yet is but a jelly ‘tis so young.
No more, no more! Trust me I do believe
You. So many slaves, whose flaming appetites
Would in one night ravish a throng of virgins
And never feel degression in their heat -
Heh, after and murder all!
How do you?
very well. Believe you think I’m mad.
‘Tis but your thoughts! Indeed I’m wondrous well.
(aside) How fair she looks after so foul a deed.
cannot be that she should be false to me?
not be shooting? Yes, they would. They have!
What say you, sweet?
(aside) The innocence that sits upon that face
Says she is chaste; the guilty can’t speak so
Evenly as she does. Guilty, said I?
Alas it were not her fault were she ravished.
Oh madness, madness, whither will thou bear me?
His senses are unsettled. I’ll go seek
Some holy man to rectify his wits.
Sweet, will you go unto some hermit’s cell?
You look as you lack rest.
(aside) She speaks like to an angel; she’s the same
As when I saw her first, as pure, as chaste.
Did she retain the substance of a sinner,
For she is none, her breath would be sour
And betray the rankness of the act, but
Her chaste sighs beget as sweet a dew as
That of May.
Why weeps Evadne? Truly I’m not mad!
See? I am tame. Pray lead me where you please.
Act Four Scene 3
A Banquet. Enter Petruchio, Aurelia and two servants bringing Antonio asleep in a chair and set him to the table.
The drink has done its part effectively.
‘Twas a strong powder that could hold his senses
So fast that this removing, so full of
Noise, had not the power to wake him.
Good father, let Aurelia, your
do this same act of justice; let
A maid, such fortitude.
Thou hast thy wish, do’t boldly. ‘Tis a deed
That in the ignorance of elder ages
Would be thought full of merit: Be not daunted.
I have a thought tells me it’s religious
To sacrifice a murderer to death,
Especially one that did act a deed
So generally accounted odious.
By holy Jacques* I’m a governor and
Should my life (though by the hand of him my
Duty does call King) be stroke i’th air, my
Injured corpse should not forsake the earth till
I did see’t revenged. Be resolute; thy
Foot is guided by a power, that though unseen,
Is still a furtherer of good attempts.
Pray Sir, lend me the key of the back ward*
For though my conscience tells me ‘tis an act
I may hereafter boast of, yet I’ll pass
Unto our Lady’s* chapel when ‘tis done
To be confessed ‘ere I am seen of any.
I am proud to see thee so well given.
Take them, girl, and with them take my prayers.
He wakes; pray leave me, Sir.
So, I’ll make fast the door. Goodness bear witness,
‘Tis a potent power out-weighs my duty.
Amazement! On what tenters* do you stretch?
Oh how this alteration wracks my reason,
I’m to find the Axeltree* on which it
Hangs. Am I asleep?
Shake thy wonder off and leave that seat, ‘twas
Set to sink thy body forever from
The eyes of human sight. To tell thee how
Would be a fatal means to both our ruins –
Briefly, my love has broke the bands of nature
With my father to give you being.
Happy, happy vision, the blessed preparative
To this same hour; my joy would burst me else.
Receive me to thy arms.
I would not wish to live but for thee, life
Were a trouble. Welcome to my soul.
Antonio and Aurelia embrace
Stand. I have a ceremony to
Offer to our safety ‘ere we go.
She takes a dog and ties it to the chair, she stamps. The chair and dog fall, a pistol shot within.
Had not my love, like a kind branch of some
O’erlooking tree, caught thee, thou’dst fallen
Never to look upon the world again.
What shall I offer to my life’s preserver?
Only thy heart, crowned with a wreath of love
Which I will ever keep, and in exchange
Thus I deliver; in this kiss receive it
Antonio kisses Aurelia
In the same form Aurelia yields up hers.
Aurelia kisses Antonio
A noise offstage
What noise is that?
I fear, my father.
What’s to be done?
Through the back ward, of which I have the key,
We’ll suddenly make escape; then in two
Gowns of which I am provided, we’ll clothe
Ourselves till we be past all fear.
Be’t as you please, ‘tis my good genius’
Will thee I obey. Command, I’ll follow still.
Exit Antonio and Aurelia
Enter Petruchio with servants
She’s gone unto her prayers; may every bead
Draw down a blessing on her, that like seed
May grow into a harvest. ‘Tis a girl
My age is proud of; she’s indeed the model
Of her dead mother’s virtue, as of shape.
Bear hence this banquet.
Exit with the Banquet.
Act Four Scene 4
Sebastiano as Giovanno is discovered sleeping in Evadne’s lap
Thou silent God, that with the leaden Mace*
Arrest all, save those prodigious birds, that
Are Fate’s heralds to proclaim all ill. Deaf
Giovanno, let no fancied noise of
Ominous screech-owls* or night raven’s voice
Affright his quiet senses. Let his sleep
Be free from horror, or unruly dreams,
That may beget a tempest in the streams
Of his calm reason. Let them run as smooth
And with as great a silence as those do
That never took an injury, where no
Wind had yet acquaintance, but like a smooth
Crystal dissolved into a water that
Never frowned or knew a voice but music.
Enter Aurelia and Antonio dressed as hermits.
Holy hermits, for such your habits speak
You, join your prayers with a distressed virgin’s,
That the wits of this distracted young man
May be settled.
Sure, it is my sister, and that sleeping
Man Giovanno. She loves him still!
Oh what a blessedness am I bereft
Of! What pleasure has the least part of a
Minute stolen from my eyes? Methought I
Did embrace a brother and a friend; and
Blessed be those gentle powers that –
(interrupts) What, Evadne? Have deceiv’d my eyes?
Take heed, Evadne, worship not a dream:
‘Tis of a smoky substance and will shrink
Into the compass of report, that ‘twas,
And not reward the labour of a word
Were it substantial. Could I now but see
That man of men I’d, by my practice of
Religious prayers, add to the calendar
One holy day and keep it once a year.
Antonio pulls down his hood to reveal his face
(to Sebastiano) Brother!
What earthquake shakes my heart; with what a speed
She flew in’t his arms.
Some Power that hearkens to the prayer of
Virgins has been distilled to pity at
My fortunes and made Evadne happy.
Now my longing that was grown big, is with
Your sight delivered of a joy, that will
Become a giant and overcome me.
Welcome, thrice welcome brother!
Ha! Her brother! Fortune has bound me so
Much in their debts I must despair to pay
Them. Twice has my life been by these twins of
Goodness plucked from the hand of death. That
Fatal enmity between our houses
Here shall end though my father, at his death,
Commanded me to eternity of
Hatred. What tie binds stronger than reprieve
From death? Come hither friend, now brother, take
Her. Thou hast been a noble tailor.
Be moderate, my joys: do not o’erwhelm
Me. Here, take Aurelia. May you live
Happy. Oh, Antonio, this was the cause
Of my disguise: Sebastiano could
Not win Evadne’s love but Giovanno
Did. Come now to our father’s castle.
Pardon me; there is a bar that does
Concern my life, forbids you as a friend
To think on going to any place
But to the tailors’ house, which is not far.
Come, as we go I will relate the cause.
Do, good brother.
Go, good Sebastiano.
Sebastiano is your Page and bound
To follow. Lead on.
Oh noble temper; I admire thee. May
The world bring forth such tailors every day.
Act Four Scene 5
Enter three tailors on a shop-board
Come, come let’s work. For if my guesses point the right we shan’t work long.
I care not how soon for I have a notable stomach to bread.
Dost hear? I suspect that courtier my Master brought in last night to be the King. Which if it be, bullies*, all the bread in the town shan’t satisfy us, for we will eat cum privilegio*.
Come, let’s have a device, a thing, a song! Boy.
Come, an air.
‘Tis a merry life we live
All our work is brought into us
Still are getting, never give,
For their clothes all men do woo us,
Yet unkind they blast our name
aspirations of dishonour:
When we take our measure on her.
For which we etc.
Enter Antonio, Sebastiano as Giovanno and the Old Tailor
You see the life we lead! Cease.
Oh ‘tis a merry one.
It is no news to me; I have been used to it.
Now for discovery – the King as yet
Is ignorant of your names and shall be
Till your merits beg your pardon.
My Lord you are for Machvile; take this gown.
Pray for success.
You in this French gown for Philippa;
This is her garment. I hear the King, begone.
The French man’s folly sits upon your tongue.
Enter the King of Spain, Evadne and Aurelia
Believe me tailor, you have out-stripped the
Court, for such perfections lives not everywhere.
Nature was vexed as she’s a very shrew*,
She made all others in an angry mood;
These only she can boast for masterpieces
The rest want something or in mind or form,
These are precisely made; a critic jury
Of cavilling* Arts can’t condemn a scruple.
But that your entrance in this formal speech
Betrays you’re a Courtier I had been angry
At your rank flattery.
Can you say so?
Sir, she has spoke my meaning.
(aside to the Old Tailor) Friend, what are these beauties called?
(to The King)) Your Grace’s pardon.
(to Old Tailor) Are they Oracle, or is the knowledge
Fatal? But that I know thy faith, this denial
Would conjure a suspicion in my breast.
Use thy prerogative, ‘tis thy own house
In which you are a king and I your guest.
Act Four Scene 6
Enter Antonio disguised as a physician
habit will do well and less suspected.
They kill with licence. Machvile’s proud dame
‘Tis famed is ficke. Upon my soul, howe’re
Her health may be the agues commons cry;
She’s a disease they groan for. This disguise
Shall sift her ebon* soul and if she be
Infectious like a megrim* or rot limb
The sword of justice must divide the joint
That holds her to the state’s endangered body.
Enter Machvile with Auristella leaning on his arm and two servants.
Look up my Auristella. Better the
Sun forsake his course to bless with his
Continuing beams the Antipodes, and
We grovel forever in eternal
Night, than death eclipse thy rich and stronger
Seek some physician, horror to my
(aside) Issue of his hopes? Strange?
The crown’s enjoyment can yield no content
Without the presence of my Auristella.
(aside) Crown’s enjoyment! Oh villain!
Why stir you not? Fetch me some skilful man.
My kingdom shall reward him if his art
Chain her departing soul unto her flesh,
But for a day, till she be crowned a Queen.
Fly bring him unto this walk.
Stay, most honoured Count!
(aside) Now for a forged link
Of flattery to chain me to his love.
Having with studious care gone o’er the
Art folly terms magic, which more sublime
Souls skilled in’t stars know is above that
Mischief, I find your born to be above
Vulgar greatness, even to a throne. But
Stay, let’s fetch this Lady.
All greatness without her is slavery.
Use modest violence.
Machvile shakes Auristella awake
Stand wider, give her air.
God-like physician, I and all that’s mine
Will at thy feet offer a sacrifice.
Forefend it goodness; I, nay all, before
Many hours makes the now young day a
Type of sparkling youth, shall on their knees
Pray for your highness.
Look up, my Aristella, and be great.
Rise with the sun, but never to decline.
What have you done?
Waked thee to be a Queen.
A Queen! Oh don’t dissemble; you have robbed
Me of greater pleasure than the fancied
Bliss Elysium* owns. Oh for a pleasure
Real that would appear in all unto my
Dream; that I may frown, and then kill, smile and
Create again. Were there a Hell, as
Doting age would have, to fright from lawless
Courses headless youth, for such a short lived
Happiness as that, I would be lost unto
The day grows old in hours.
Auristella, to the capital:
Pay a religious sacrifice of praise
Unto thy demi-deity; the stars
Have in a general senate made thee Queen
Of this our world: great master of thy art
Confirm my love.
Auristella makes to speak
Nay, hear him, love. Believe me he’s a man
That may be secretary to the Gods.
He is alone in art, ‘twere sin to name
A second; all are dunces to him.
Easy is the faith of the ambitious.
Follow me to the counsel.
Are you the man my husband speaks so high of?
Are you skilled in the stars?
Your habit says, or you abuse the custom,
You’re a physician.
Madam, I’m both.
And d’ee* find no let that stops me rising?
Away! Your skill is dull, dull to derision.
There is a star fixed i’th heaven of greatness
That sparkles with a rich and fresher light
Than our sick and defective taper.
It may be so; the horoscope is troubled.
Confusion take your horoscope and you. Can
with all your art, advise my fears
(aside) Death, how she conjures!
Madam, I must search into the planets.
Planet me no planets! Be a physician
And from your study of industrious poisons
Fetch me the best experienced speedy one
And bring it to me straight. What ‘tis to do
Like unresolved riddles, hid from you.
Planet said I; upon my life no planet
Is so swift as her ne’er resting evil
That’s her tongue. Well, I’ll not question what the
Poison’s for: if for herself – the common
Hangman’s eased the labour of a blow for
If she lived her head must certain off. The
Poison I’ll go get and give it her, then
To the King if Sebastiano’s
Frenchified disguise purchase the like
Discovery. Our eyes will be too scanty;
We had need to be all eye, to watch such
Act Four Scene 7
Enter Sebastiano, as a French tailor, and Philippa
(aside) Begar* Madam: me make the gown so brave*.
Oh, de nole vorle vorke be me patron, me ha vorke for le grand Duchess le Shevere, le Royne de Francia, Spanea de Angleter an all d’ fine Madamsels*.
Nay monsieur. To deprive desert of praise is unknown. Language, truth, I use it not; nay it is very well.
Be me trot a Madam mener do ill. De English man do ill, de Spanare do, de Duch de all do ill. But your French man, and begar he doe incomparable brave.*
You’re too proud on’t.
Begar me no proud I’d vorle, me speak be me trot de trut, and me noe lye; metra madam begar you have de find bode a de vorle. O de fine brave big ting in me have ever measure, me waire it fit so pat.*
Welcome my Lord.
Shall I still long, yet lose my longing still?
there no art to mount the lofty seat?
Must we be still styled* subjects, and for fear
Our closet whispers reach the a wing care,
Not trust the wind?
calm, my love.
Me Signior, be povera jentle homa a Franch a votre commandement.
Yes monsieur, the Madam’s tailor.
Some happy genius does attend my
Wishes, or [a] spirit, like a Page, conducts
Unto me the Ministers, whose suite must
Seat me easy. Come hither French man, can’st
Thou rule thy tongue? Art not too much a woman?
No, begar, me show something for the man.
Or canst thou be like a perverse one: professe
Doggedness? Be as a dead man? Dumb? Briefly
Be this: a friend to France and with a silent
Speed post to our now approaching armed friends.
Tell them Raymond, ere the hasty sand
Of a short hour be spent, shall be impaled
And on his brow a deputy for France
Support a golden wreath of Kingly cares.
Bid them make haste to pluck my partner down
Into his grave. Be gone, as thou nursest
In thy breast thoughts that do thirst for
Nobleness. Be secret and thou’rt made; if
Not thou’rt nothing. Mark ‘tis Raymond says it,
And as I live, I breathe not if my deeds
Appear not in a horror ‘bove my words.
Begar me, no need threaten; me be as close to your secret, or my Lady’s secret as the skin to the flesh, the flesh to the bone; if me tell call me the…what do you call the Modero?* The dog, the bitch; call me son of the bitch.
Count Machvile waits your honour in the hall.
Do it and be more than common in our
Favour. Here, take this ring for thy more
Credit. Farewell; be quick and secret.
Exit Raymond, Fulgentio and Philippa
Folly go from my tongue: the French so nigh
And thou half ruined Spain, so wretchedly
Provided. Strange, yet not, all countries have
Bred monsters. ‘Tis a proverb as plain as
True, and aged as ‘tis both: one tainted sheep
Mars a whole flock. Machvile, that tainted beast,
Whose spreading ills infecteth all and by
Infecting kills. I’ll to the French what he
Intends to be our ruin; shall confound their villainy.
Act Five Scene 1
Enter the King, Antonio, Old Tailor, Evadne and Aurelia. The King and Antonio are whispering as they walk on stage.
For this discovery be still* Antonio.
The frowning law may with a furrowed face
Hereafter look upon but ne’er shall touch
Thy condemned body. Here, from a King’s hand,
Take thy Aurelia. Our command shall smooth
The rising billows of her father’s rage
And charm it to a calm. Let one be sent
To certify our pleasure; we would see him.
Your Grace’s will shall be in all obeyed.
Thy loyal love makes thy King poor.
Let not your judgment, Royal sir, be questioned,
To term that love – was but a subject’s duty.
Exit Old Tailor
You sent the poison, did you?
Yes, and here like your Grace; the Apothecary
Called it a strong provocative to madness.
Did he not question what you used it for?
Oh, my disguise saved him from that labour sir.
My habit, that was more physician than
Myself, told him to dispatch some
Property that had been tortured with some
Five thousand drugs to try experiment.
Another man shan’t buy the quantity
Of so much rats-bane shall kill a flea, but
Shall be had forsooth* before a Justice,
Be questioned, nay perhaps be confined to
Peep through an iron gate, when your
Physician may poison, who not, cum
Privelgio*; it’s his trade.
Enter Sebastiano as Giovanno
Oh my Sebastiano!
My brother has already made you known.
Will it please your Highness?
What, Sebastiano? To still be a King
Of universal Spain without a rival?
Yes it does please me, and you ministers
Of my still growing greatness shall ere long
Find I am pleased with you that boldly durst
Pluck from the fixed arm of sleeping justice
Her long sheathed sword and wet the rusty blade
Upon Machvile and his confederate rebels.
That, my Lord, is yet to do. Let him mount
Higher that his fall may be too deep for
A resurrection. They’re gone to the Great
Hall, whither wil’t please your Grace disguised to
Go, your person by our care shall be secure.
Their French troops I have sent useless into
France by virtue of Raymond’s ring, which he
Gave me to bid the General, by that token,
To march to this city.
What say the colonels? Will they assist me?
Doubt not, my Lord.
Come then, let’s go guarded; with such as you
‘Twere sin to fear were all the world untrue.
Act Five Scene 2
Now for the credit of tailors.
Nay master, and* we do, not act, as they say, with any players in the globe of the world, let us be baited like a bull for a company of strutting coxcombs*: nay we can act I can tell you.
Well, I must to the King. See you be perfect; I’ll move it to his highness.
Exit Old Tailor
Now my masters we are to do – do mark me – do…
Do! What do? Act, act! You fool, you. Do, said you? What do? You a player, you are a plasterer, a mere dirt dauber and not worthy to be mentioned with Virmine, that exact actor. Do! I am ashamed on’t, fie!
Well said, Virmine. Thou tickles* him y‘faith*.
Play a play a play, ha ha ha. Oh egregious* nonsensical widgeon*, thou shame to our cross-legged corporation, thou fellow of a sound. Play a play. Why forty pounds golding* of the beggars’ theatre speaks better, yet has a mark for the sage audience to exercise their dexterity in throwing rotten apples, whilst my stout actor pockets and then eats up the injury. Play a play: it makes my Worship laugh y‘faith*.
To him, Virmine, thou bites* him y‘faith*.
We’ll act a play before the King.
What play shall we act?
To fret the French the more we will act strange but true, of the straddling monsieur with the Neapolitan gentleman between his legs.
That won’t act well.
Oh giant of incomparable ignorance: that won’t act well, ha ha, that won’t do well. You ass, you!
You bit him for saying ‘do’: Virmine leave biting, you’d best.
What say you to our Spanish Bilbo*?
That he was a mad rascal to stab himself.
But shall we act him?
Aye, let us do him.
Do again! Ha.
No, no; let us act him.
I am content.
Who shall act the ghost?
Why marry, that will I, I Virmine.
Thou dost not look like a ghost.
little player’s deceit: flour will do’t. Mark me, I can rehearse, mark me
I was a tailor in the Court of Spain.”
Courtier, Virmine, in the Court of Spain.
Aye, there’s a great many Courtiers Virmine indeed:
Those are they beg poor man’s living; but I say tailor Virmine is a Court tailor.
Who shall act Jeronimo*?
That will I. Mark if I do not gape wider than the widest mouthed fowler* of them all, hang me*: “Who call Jeronimo from his naked bed?” Ha. Now for the passionate part: “Alas it is my son Horatio”.
Very fine, but who shall act Horatio?
Aye, who shall do your son?
What, do, do again? Well, I will act Horatio.
Why, you are his father!
Pray who is fitter to act the son than the father that begot him?
Who shall act Prince Balthazar and the King?
I will do Prince Balthazar too, and for the King who but I? Who of you all has such a face for a king, or such a leg to trip up the heels of a traitor?
You will do all I think?
Yes marry will I. Who but Virmine? Yet I will leave all to play the King, pass by Jeronimo.
Then you are for the King?
Aye, bully*, aye.
Let’s go seek our fellows and to this gear*.
Come on then
Act Five Scene 3
Table and stool are centre stage. Enter a Brave
Men of our needful profession, that deal in such commodities as men’s lives, had need to look about ‘em ere they traffic*. I am to kill Raymond, the Devil’s cozen german*, for he wears the same complexion. But there is a right devil that hath hired me; that’s Count Machvile. Good table conceal me – here will I wait my watch word, but have I not forgot it, then, aye then, is my arm to enter. I hear them coming.
under the table.
King, Antonio, Old Tailor, Evadne and Aurelia above.
Pray take your seats.
(to Philippa) [You are] Not well. Prithee retire.
Sick, sick at heart.
Well wrought poison. Oh how joy swells me.
You see my Lord the poison is boxed* up.
Health wait upon this royal company.
Knows she we are here?
no my Lord, ‘tis to the twins of treason:
(to other colonels) Royal! There’s something in’t.
(to other colonels) It smells rank o’th traitor,
(to other colonels) Are you i’th wind on’t?
Will you leave us?
I cannot stay. Oh, I am sick to death.
Or I’ll ne’er trust poison more.
Pray seat yourselves gentlemen. Though your deserts
Have merit and your worth’s have deserved nobly,
But ingratitude, that should be banished
From a Prince’s breast, is Philip’s favourite.
Philip? Traitor, why not King? I am so.
Patience, my good Lord. I’ll down.
It lives too near him.
You that have ventured with expense of blood
And danger of your lives to rivet him
Unto his seat with peace; you, that in war
He termed his Atlases* and pressed with praise
Your brawny shoulders, called you his Colossuses*
And said your looks frightened tall war out of
His territories; now in peace, the issue
Of your labour, this bad man, Philip I
Mean, made of ingratitude won’t afford
A name that may distinguish your worthy
Selves from cowards: civet cats spotted with
Rat’s dung, or a face like white broth strewed o’er
With curranco* for a stirring caper
Or itching dance to please my Lady Vanity
Shall be made a smock* knight.
Villain! Must our disgrace mount thee?
what tends this?
Enter Antonio below
To be your King; fie on this circumstance
My longing will not brook it: say will you
Obey us as your Kings and Queens?
(aside) My Lord Antonio!
(to Spanish Colonels) Confine yourselves. The King is within hearing.
Therefore make show of liking Machvile’s plot,
Let him mount high; his fall will be the deeper.
My life, you shall be safe.
Are you agreed?
If not we’ll force you to’t. Speak Frenchman, are
Our forces i’th city?
We acknowledge you our King.
The Brave stabs Raymond.
Ha, from whence this sudden mischief? Did you not see a hand armed with the fatal ruin of my life?
None paw* signor.
Ha ha ha. Lay hold on those French soldiers, away with them.
Exit Guard with the French Colonels
Was’t thy plot Machvile? Go laughing to thy grave.
Raymond stabs Machvile
Alas my lord is wounded.
Come hither Frenchman, make a dying man
Bound to thy love. Go to Philippa,
Sickly as she is, bring her unto me
Or my flying soul will not depart in
Peace else. Prithee make haste. Yet stay; I have
Not breath to pay thy labour. Shrink you, you
Twin-born Atlases*, that bear this, my near
Ruined world. Have you not strength to bear a
Curse, whose breath may taint the air, that this globe
May feel a universal plague. No, yet
up, till with a vengeful eye I
Pluck my impartial star. Oh my blood is
Frozen in my veins. Farwell revenge – me
Raymond collapses and dies
They need no law.
They condemn and execute without a jury.
Enter Philippa mad
I come, I come. Nay fly not, for by Hell
I’ll pluck thee by the beard and drag thee thus
Out of thy fiery cave. Ha, on yonder hill
Stand troops of devils waiting for my soul,
But I’ll deceive them and instead of mine
Send this same spotted tiger’s.
Philippa stabs Auristella
So whilst they to Hell are posting with their
Prize I’ll steal to Heaven. Wolf dost thou grin?
Ha, is my Raymond dead? So ho, so ho.
Come back you sooty fiends that have my
Raymond’s soul and lay it down, or I will
Force you for’t. No, won’t you stir? By Styx* I’ll
Bait you for’t. Where is my Crown? Philippa
Was a Queen, was she not? Ha! Where is my
Oh you have hid it …
Philippa overturns table.
Ha, wast thou that robbed Philippa of her
Raymond’s life? Nay I will nip your wings, you
Shall not fly. I’ll pluck you by the guarded
Front and thus sink you to Hell before me.
Philippa stabs the Brave
What, down? Ho, ho, ho.
Laugh, laugh, you sould that fry in endless flames.
Ha, whence this chillness? Must I die? Nay then
I come, I come. Nay, weep not, for I come.
Sleep injured shadow, oh death strikes [me] dumb.
My burdened conscience sinks me down to Hell.
I cannot tarry long, farewell. We’ll meet
Where we shall ne’er part. If here be any
My life has injured, let your charity
Forgive declining Machvile: I am sorry.
His penitence works strongly on my temper. Off disguise, see falling Count, Antonio forgives you.
Oh my shame! Can you whom
Betrays thee to thy death! Ha, ha, ha.
Machvile stabs Antonio
So weeps the Egyptian monster* when it kills,
Washed in a flood of tears. Couldst ever think
Machvile’s repentance could come from his heart?
No, down Colossus, author of my sin,
And bear the burden mingled with thine own
To finish thy damnation.
Enter the King, Aurelia, Evadne and the Old Tailor.
Accursed villain, thou hast murdered him
That holds not one small drop of loyal blood
But what is worth your life.
Oh my brother!
Give him some air, the wound cannot be mortal.
Alas, he faints. Oh my Antonio!
Cursed Machvile, may thy soul…
peace Aurelia; be more merciful.
Thy passion, call it madness and say thou
Want’st religion. Nay, weep not, sweet, for
Everyone must die. It was thy love, for
To deceive the law and give me life; but
Death you see has reached me. Oh I die. Blood
Must have blood; so speaks the Law of Heaven.
I slew the Governor, for which rash deed
Heaven, fate and man thus make Antonio bleed.
Sleep, sleep, great heart, thy virtue made me ill.
Authors of vice; ‘tis fit the vicious kill.
But yet forgive me. Oh my great heart
Dissolves like snow and lessens to a rheum*,
Cold as the envious blasts of northern wind
World, how I loved you, ‘twere a sin to boast.
Farewell, I now must leave you:
My life grows empty within my veins, I
Cannot stand, my breath is as my strength – weak,
both seized by death. Farewell ambition:
Headlong threw me down.
So falls an exhalation* from the sky
And never mist because unnatural, a
Birth begotten by incorporate ill, whose
Usher to the gazing world is wonder.
Alas, good man, thou’rt come unto a sight
Will try thy temper, whether joy or grief
Shall conquer most within thee. Joy lies here
Scattered in many heaps: these, when they lived,
Threatened to tear this balsam* from our brow
And rob our Majesty of this Elixir*.
The King points to his crown
Is‘t not my right? Was I not heir to Spain?
You are our Prince and may you live long to enjoy your right.
But now look here: ‘tis plain grief has a hand
Harder than joy; it presses out such tears.
to kneel before the King
I do beseech your Grace not to think me
Contriver of Antonio’s ‘scape from death;
‘Twas my disloyal daughter’s breach of duty.
That’s long since pardoned.
You’re still merciful.
Antonio was thy son: I sent for thee
For to confirm it, but he is dead.
Be merciful and do not curse the hand
That gave it him, though it deserves it.
Oh my grief, are you not strong enough to
Break my heart? Pray tell me, tell me true, can
It be thought a sin? Or is it so by
My own hand to ease my breast of woe?
Alas, poor Lady. Rise, thy father’s here.
Look up, Aurelia. Ha, why do you kneel?
For a blessing.
Why, she is not Aurelia! Do not mock me.
But he is Sebastiano and your son,
Late, by our hand, made happy by enjoying
The fair Evadne, dead Antonio’s sister,
For whose sake he became a tailor
And so long lived in that mean disguise.
My joy had been too great had he lived. The
Thrifty heavens mingle our sweets with gall,
Lest being glutted with excess of good
We should forgive the giver. Rise,
Sebastiano, with thy happy choice. May
Thou live crowned with the enjoyment of those
Benefits my prayers shall beg for. Rise,
Aurelia, and in some place blessed with
Religious prayers, spend thy life remnant.
You advise well. Indeed it was a fault
To break the bonds of duty and of law,
But love, oh Love, thou whose all conquering power
Builds castles on the hearts of easy maids
And makes ‘em strong unto attempt those dangers
That but rehearsed before would fright their souls
Into a jelly. Brother, I must leave
You, and father, when I send unto you
A note, that shall desire a yearly
Stipend to that holy place my tired
Feet has found to rest in, pray confirm it.
And now great King, Aurelia begs of you
To grace Antonio in the mournful march
Unto his grave, which be where you think fit:
We need not both be entered in one vault.
Blessed Virgin, thy desires I will perform.
I leave you; my prayers shall still attend you,
As I hope yours shall accompany me.
Father, your blessing; and ere long expect
To hear where I am entertained a nun.
Brother and sister, to you both, adieu.
Antonio dead, Aurelia marries new.
Farewell, girl. When I remember thee,
The beads I drop shall be my tears.
Enter Virmine in a cloak,
ready to perform the prologue to the tailor’s play
She’s to all virgins a true mirror; they
That would behold true love reflect on her.
There ‘tis engrossed.
Great King, our Grace…
The king is sad; you must not act.
How? Not act? Shall not Virmine act?
Yes you shall act, but not now; the King is indisposed.
Well then, some other time. I, Virmine the King, shall act before the King.
Very good. Pray make your exit.
I’ll muster up all the tailors in the town and so tickle their sides.
The King and Sebastiano whisper to one another
Nay, thou’rt a right Virmine. Go be not troublesome.
Sebastiano kneels before the King
Upon my truth and loyalty great King
What they did was feigned, merely words
Without a heart; ‘twas by Antonio’s counsel.
Thou art all truth: rise.
The Colonels kneel
Long live King Philip in the calm of peace
To exercise his regal clemency.
Take up Antonio’s body, and let the
Rest find Christian burial ; mercy befits
A King. Come trusty tailor, and to all
Countries let swift Fame report King Philip
Made a tailor’s house his Court.
Your Grace honours me.
We can’t enough pay thy alone deserts;
may be poor when all subjects are like thee,
March with the body, we’ll perform all rites
Of sable ceremony. That done we’ll
To Court, since all our own is won.