Shakespeare and the Invention of the Heterosexual
University of British Columbia
Stephen Guy-Bray. "Shakespeare and the Invention of the Heterosexual". Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 16 (October, 2007) 12.1-28 <URL: http://purl.oclc.org/emls/si-16/brayshks.htm>.
For naturall affection soone doth cesse,
And quenched is with Cupids greater flame:
But faithfull friendship doth them both suppresse.
Sir Valentine's page; and sent, I think, from Proteus.What should be a simple declaration of love becomes a chain of substitutions: textuality for physical presence, Lucetta for Julia, Proteus' page for Proteus, and Proteus for Valentine. After this discussion comes the farcical sequence in which Lucetta attempts to deliver the letter: she takes it away, brings it back, drops it, picks it up, refuses to give the letter, gives it, then Julia looks at it, rips it up, and forbids Lucetta to pick up the pieces. Once Lucetta has gone, Julia apostrophises the pieces and vows to atone for her rough treatment—"I'll kiss each several paper for amends" (I.ii.108)—then searches the pieces for names: "kind Julia," "love-wounded Proteus," "Poor forlorn Proteus, passionate Proteus, / To the sweet Julia" (I.ii.109, 113, 124-25). Then Lucetta comes back on stage and picks up the pieces.
He would have given it you, but I, being in the way,
Did in your name receive it (I.ii.38-40).
 Faerie Queene, Poetical Works, ed. J.C. Smith and Ernest de Selincourt Oxford: Oxford UP, 1912, IV.ix.2.1-3.
 Sovereign Amity: Figures of Friendship in Shakespearean Comedy. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2002, 4. For a thorough and valuable study of the huge body of Renaissance friendship literature see 17-53.
 For a Renaissance text that argues for marriage as a kind of friendship, see Tilney.
 Homosexuality in Renaissance England. London: Gay Men's P, 1982, 74, 42-53. For a more recent study that looks at the situation in Renaissance Italy, see Rocke, especially 148-91.
 And compare As You Like It, where Rosalind disguises herself as a boy called Ganymede.
 Materializing Gender in Early Modern English Literature and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006, 35. For other good analyses of prosthetic gender in the Renaissance, see the discussions by Stallybrass and by Finucci, 190-211.
 "Coming Out in Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona."ELH 60 (1993), 857.
 "Coming Out in Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona." 858.
 Textual Intercourse: Collaboration, Authorship, and Sexualities in Renaissance Drama Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997, 39.
 For a discussion of the conflict between same-sex and mixed-sex bonds in Euphues, see Guy-Bray.
 For an excellent discussion of the role of texts in the formation of the play's characters, see Goldberg 68-100; see also Masten, 40-45.
 Close Readers: Humanism and Sodomy in Early Modern England Princeton: Princeton UP, 1997, xliv.
 For an analysis of sexuality and letter writing in Erasmus' own correspondence, see Stevens. For the role of correspondence in Erasmus' life and posthumous reputation as a whole, see Jardine, especially 14-26.
 Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Riverside Shakespeare, gen. ed. G. Blakemore Evans Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974, I.ii.38-40. All references to the play are to this edition and will appear parenthetically in the text.
 "Mimetic Service in The Two Gentlemen of Verona." ELH 72 (2005), 114.
 Phaedrus, Opera vol. II, ed. John Burnet, Oxford: Clarendon P, 1901, 264c. This statement itself contains a metaphor, as the word that I have translated as 'image' is zoon, which can mean both a living being and an object like a statue, that resembles a living being.
 "Mimetic Service in The Two Gentlemen of Verona." 105. See 113-17 for her discussion of Lance.
"Coming Out in Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona," 859.
"Voice, Ideology, and Gendered Subjects: The Case of As You Like It and Two Gentlemen." Shakespeare Quarterly 50 (1999), 304.
Materializing Gender in Early Modern English Literature and Culture, 11.
Materializing Gender in Early Modern English Literature and Culture, 66.
 For a discussion of the homoeroticism of the forest world in this play see Simmons, 870.
 "'In nothing am I chang'd but in my garments': Shakespearean Cross-Dressing and the Politics of Sexual Frustration." Annals of Scholarship 11 (1996-97), 219.
 I have chosen Hyman's note because it is the most recent analysis of the lines in question. The article also includes a useful bibliography and discussion of the most important and influential work on the lines. See also Schleiner, 305-07, Masten, 45-48, and, for a good brief discussion of what is at stake in interpreting this line, Simmons 860.
 "Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona 5.4.83" The Explicator 64.4 (2006), 200.
 Sovereign Amity, 1.
 Textual Intercourse, 48.
 Northanger Abbey, eds James Kinsley and John Davie, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003, 185.