British Travellers to Morocco and their Accounts,
from mid-16th to mid-20th Centuries: A Bibliography

Khalid Chaouch, University of Ben Mellal


There are, and always have been, two North Africa's available to English eyes: one real, the other highly coloured by our collective imagination.

Barnaby Rogerson


This is of necessity not an exhaustive bibliography of British travellers to Morocco and their accounts. It is undoubtedly impossible to trace back to the dawn of humanity all the British travellers who crossed the straits to Mauritania, (West) Barbary, Marokko, or Moghreb-el-Acksa. The bibliography is intended to cover the period from the mid-16th to the mid-20th century, which encompasses most of the written travel accounts that have some historical, literary, documentary, exotic and artistic interest. Self-evidently, the difficulty of finding written accounts belonging to the period before the mid-16th century is due the rarity of contact between the two countries. But thanks to commercial then political incentives that began during the reigns of Tudor and early Saadian monarchs, Morocco and Great Britain established a series of diplomatic contacts, and, as a result, ‘a considerable number of English traders, ambassadors and adventurers started visiting Morocco and a few accounts of this country started to emerge.’ (1) After the mid-20th century, travel narratives became less important in literary and documentary terms, especially with the decline of the Empire. Between the two World Wars, ‘the sun, which , as every schoolboy knew, never set on the British territory and British trade, went down below the horizon.’ (2) According to Ricoux-Faure, it was Evelyn Waugh who sounded the knell of travel-writing soon after the Second World War:

The travel-writer, a product of a class of gentlemen adventurers, or of a cosmopolitan intelligentsia, had to disappear with the Empire. The old world crumbled down; it was bristling with frontiers; and after all, what was still there to discover? Waugh saw, with dread, mass tourism replacing adventure. (3)

The status and motives of such travellers were diverse and multiple to the extent that we can not categorise them together. The difficulty of classifying them emanates, in fact, from the different roles they had: we can find among them the tradesman, the ambassador, the adventurer, the buccaneer, the pirate, the spy, the explorer, the missionary, the soldier, the captive, the painter, the physician, the journalist, and the researcher. (4) Needless to say that some of them performed more than one function. But, regardless of their positions and functions, these travellers had at least three things in common: they were British; they travelled in Morocco for a certain period of their life; and they wrote a record of Morocco. It is, indeed, the third point which is perhaps the most important. .

Most of these travellers recorded their memories, impressions, remarks and comments in the forms of travel accounts, books, memoirs, letters, and extensive reports. Whatever the degree of objectivity and authenticity of such writings, they played, in fact, a significant role in conditioning and inspiring a great number of attitudes, judgements and prejudices that the British have had towards Morocco throughout history. Even today, this enormous corpus still accounts for the present attitudes, prejudices, and attempts at (mis)representation made by British – and even American and English-speaking – writers, researchers, and policy makers.

Besides, the momentous import of these travel accounts, in particular, and of English travel-writing, in general, remains a particular phenomenon in the literary landscape. A French critic confesses that this genre (travel-writing) is a British product par excellence: "Travel-writing is a British speciality as inimitable as roast beef with mint sauce: such a consistent and fanciful, surprising and unforgettable meal." (5) The recent republication of many books, the recovery of forgotten books and papers, and the burgeoning colloquia on ‘Otherness’, ‘Cross-Cultural issues’ and ‘pre-colonial Morocco’, all attest to the revival of interest in such writings. Furthermore, the increasing number of English-speaking Moroccan researchers has favoured a tendency to reconsider the historical ties and cultural contacts with Britain. The translation of certain captivity accounts into Arabic (or French) has been of great importance to Moroccan historians.

Since the present bibliography aims to provide a list of those English travellers who wrote about Morocco, it is also necessary to mention British painters who travelled to this country and produced paintings of Morocco. Their works are even richer than many accounts since the artist has the ability to summarise, in one painting, the whole scene, the stand and the perspective – things that the writer might express in pages and pages within a text. Moreover, before the end of the 19th century, painting was the sole visual ‘witness’ in the absence of photography and film technology. Such artists were not only agents, but they were affected by their own travels. Some of them were profoundly influenced by the Moroccan landscape and architecture.

The corpus here will prove a useful reference for the Moroccan researcher and historian. What the mainstream, official, state historians have overlooked, or at least could not state, was well documented by those overseas. Once in their mother country, travellers were, to a great extent, free to embroider their accounts. In their metropolitan surroundings, travellers were in a privileged position: the position of the one among the very few who had been there, who had seen sights with their own eyes.

The works that most attract our curiosity and attention are the captivity accounts. The first thing that stares us in the face is the kind of words used in the titles of some of them, words such as ‘True’, ‘by Himselfe’, or ‘Authentick’. This insistence on authenticity apparent in such titles presupposes the existence of false accounts and evokes probable scepticism about authorship. Frank Lebel explains this phenomenon by the fact that most of these captivity accounts were intended to warn other travellers, and consequently – according to him – many were mere plagiarisms. (6) He offers the example of Henry Boyde’s book, Several Voyages to Barbary…, which is – according to Lebel – nothing but the English copy of the account of the Frères de la Trinité, published in Paris in 1725 under the title Relation en forme de journal du voyage pour la rédemption des captifs aux royaumes de Maroc et d’Alger… Lebel even presumes that it was, in fact, Morgan the plagiarist who wrote the account under the name of an authentic captive (Boyde) to secure good sales for the book. (7) On the same subject, Barnaby Rogerson, a contemporary writer, asserts that ‘many of these accounts were specifically produced by redemption societies who would only free those Christian captives who were prepared to sign contracts to go on long European-wide fund raising tours dressed in rags and chains.’ (8)

The list presented here is chronologically ordered for many reasons. First, any researcher desiring to trace the different stages of the evolution of Moroccan society, identity, history, ethnicity, and culture in general, will surely have to follow this order. Second, in the case of these very accounts, the chronological order is, strangely enough, a thematic one at the same time. Since they reflect the relationships of the two nations, the accounts thus listed offer a parallel list of the kinds of groups of travellers: the early tradesmen, the first ambassadors, the corsairs, the war captives, the missionaries, the painters, the touring novelists, etc. This sketchy division is not a cut and dry classification, and overlapping is inevitable. Third, the chronological presentation offers the researcher the possibility of making comparisons between the different centuries and to perceive the fluctuating number of travels from one period to another (although it should be repeated that this is not an exhaustive list). For instance, we have only seven travellers in the second half of the 16th century, whereas we have at least twenty six travellers (and more than thirty accounts) in the last 20 years of the 19th century.

As for the whole number of English travel accounts on Morocco, it is very difficult to give an exact number or to pretend to make an exhaustive list. In terms of writing on Morocco in general, Sir Lambert Playfair and Dr. Robert Brown advanced, as early as 1891, the number of 2200 titles. (9) It is clear, then, that the number of travel narratives that I have collected in this paper is relatively meagre. But, I hope it is a representative cross-section of all the English travel writings about Morocco.

The date in bold type refers to the first publication; if no edition is mentioned, then the bold numerals refer to the date of the first trip into Morocco. (This can, in many cases, be inferred from the title itself.) To simplify research, an alphabetical list of names with their classification number in this paper is given at the end of this bibliography.

1- James Aldy, The First voyage of traffique into the Kingdom of Marocco in Barbarie, begun in the yeere 1551, with a tall ship called "the Lion" of London whereof went as a capitain Master Thomas Windham. (A letter to Michael Lok).

He made two journeys to Morocco. The first one was made in 1551 with Captain Thomas Windham (1510?-1553?), and the second in 1552. (10)

2- James Thomas, "The second voyage to Barbary in the yeere 1552, set forth by the right worshipful Sir John Yorke, Sir William Gerard, Sir Thomas Wroth, master Francis Lambert, master Cole, and others, written by the relation of master James Thomas, then page to master Thomas Windham, chiefe Capitaine of this voyage."

James Thomas was one of the travellers who accompanied Captain Thomas Windham in 1552. In this voyage they stopped in Safi to deliver some goods which were destined for Marrakech, then they resumed their trip to Agadir. His account contains a description of the situation of trade in Safi and Agadir. (11)

3- Roger Bodenham, A Voyage Made by M. Roger Bodenham to S. John of Ullua in the Bey of Mexico, in the Yeere 1564. (Published in Hakluyt’s book, vol. III, p. 455)

This trader and traveller came to Morocco before he made his voyage to Mexico in 1564. In his memoirs on his travels he advised English politicians to make secret treaties with Morocco as a defence against their rivals, the Spaniards. (12)

4- Edmond Hogan, - "A Coppie of Hogans lettre to her Matie from Maruecos." (Published in Thomas Wright, Queen Elizabeth and her Times. vol. II, p. 56; and in Sir Henry Ellis, Original Letters… 3rd Series, vol. IV, p. 21.)

The Ambassage of Mr Edmund Hogan, one the sworne esquires of her Majesties person, from her Highness to Mully Abd el-Melech Emperour of Marocco, and King of Fes and Sus, in the Yeere 1577, written by himselfe. This account was also Published in: R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations… of the English Nation. Edition of 1598-1600, vol. II, 2nd part, pp. 64-67;

Robert Kerr, A General Kerr, A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels… vol. VII, p. 320; and James Grey Jackson, An Account of Timbuctoo and Housa Territories… by El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny… To which is added, Letters descriptive of Travels through West and South Barbary… (p. 494.)

In both accounts, Edmund Hogan describes his embassy travel, how he arrived to Safi, and how he was received in Marrakech by the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Abd El Malik in 1577. (13)

5- John Williams: A Discourse of John Williams dealyinge in Barbarie for the provision of saltpeter from thence, to serve the King there of yron pellets from hence.

This account is in fact signed by Edmund Hogan. This one sent his agent, John Williams, to investigate the possibility of importing saltpetre and sugar from Morocco, and, as a counterpart, exporting English munitions. John Williams also gave the Moroccan King the answer of Queen Elizabeth about the possibility of establishing friendly relations between the two countries. (14)

6- Francis Fletcher, The first part of the second voyage about the world, attempted, continued, and happily accomplished … by M. Francis Drake … written and faithfully layed downe by Francis Fletcher, Minister of Christ and Preacher of the Gospell, adventurer and traveller in the same voyage.

A traveller, an adventurer and a missionary, he accompanied Francis Drake on his circumnavigation of the world. In this account, he gave a description of Tit (which he called ‘the city of lions’, near Azemmour), Safi, Mogador (Essaouira), and the snowy Atlas. Drake’s trip is also described by another traveller named John Cooke. (15)

7- Henry Roberts, The Ambassage of master Henry Roberts… from her Highnesse to Mully Hamet, Emperour of Marocco and the King of Fesse, and Sus, in the yeere 1585… written briefly by himselfe.

He arrived in Safi on 14 September 1585 and spent three years and a half in Morocco. He also wrote his memoirs about this voyage in 1589. But in 1603, he suggested to James I that he should conquer Morocco, to Christianise its people, and to lay claim to its riches for England and all Christendom. (16)

8- Robert Cottington,

He wrote an account of his travel to Morocco, in which he describes this country during the reign of the Saadian Sultan, Al-Mansour. (17)

9- Anthony Sherley (1565 – after 1635)

This famous traveller and adventurer was in Venice (1599), Constantinople, Persia, Moscow, Prague, Rome (1601), Venice (1603). In 1605 he came – once again – to Morocco as an ambassador of the Austrian emperor to incite the Moroccan Sultan to make war against the Turks in Algeria. He stayed about five months in Safi, then he moved to Marrakech. His biography is recorded in these two books:

The Three Brothers, or the Travels and Adventures of Sir Anthony, Sir Robert and Sir Thomas Sherley in Persia, Russia, Turkey and Spain, with Portraits. London, 1885.

Evelyn-Philipp Shirley, The Sherley Brothers, by one of the Same House. Chiswick, 1848. (18)

10- William Lithgow, The Total Discourse of the rare Adventures and painfulle Peregrinations of Long nineteen yeares Travailes from Scotland to the most famous Kingdomes in Europa, Asia and Africa… (London: I. Okes, 1640, 514 p. Earlier editions, 1614, 1616, 1632.)

De Castres casts doubts about the voyage of William Lithgow (1582-1645?) to Morocco, because of errors in the descriptions of certain facts about Morocco. (19) Roland Lebel asserts that this book contains the first detailed description of Fez in English. This city of one million people, 120.000 houses, 460 little mosques, in addition to a mosque of 900 lamps, is considered by William Lithgow as "the goodliest place of all north Affrick. Truly this is a world for a city." He also describes its luxurious hostels, and brothels . (20)

11- John Smith, True Travels in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. (1630). Reedited by E. Arber: Edinburgh, 1910, 2 vols.

John Smith (1580-1631) visited many European countries (France, Italy, Dalmatia, Hungary, Germany, Spain). He came to Morocco in 1604. When he went to America in 1606 he settled in Virginia and was elected president of the colony (in 1608). He came back at last to London, where he published brochures and maps to encourage colonisation.

In his True Travels, there is a description of some Moroccan cities such as Ceuta, Tangier, Safi, Marrakech, and Fez. (21)

12- John Harrison, The Tragical Life and Death of Muley Abdala Malek, the Late King of Barbarie. (1633)

John Harrison made eight voyages as an ambassador to Morocco between 1610 and 1632. He wrote about Morocco in his book which he published in 1633. (22)

13-John Dunton, A true Journal of the Sally Fleet, with the Proceedings of the Voyage, 1637.

This is the captivity account of "mariner" John Dunton, who advocates, like Lithgow, the idea that the ‘Sally rovers’ used the skills of the mariners they captured. The account also includes a list of captives in Salé. (23)

14- Robert Blake (1599-1657): A true copy of my journal duering the tyme of my agency to the King of Moroco. (1638)

He made commercial and consular voyages to Morocco between 31 May 1638 and 5 January 1639. After accomplishing these missions, Robert Blake became a prominent admiral during the rule of Oliver Cromwell. (24)

15- Stephen Scot: He travelled for seven years in the region of Sous. He wrote his Memoirs about these travels in 1638 and sent them to the English political officials. He asked them to take his records into consideration while making treaties and political relations with Morocco. (25)

16- George Carteret (1609/10 – 1680): The Barbary Voyage of 1638 (…from the original manuscript of George Carteret…). Philadelphia : W. F. Fell, 1929, in 8°, 41. (26)

He made his trip to Morocco in 1638 (from 30 April to 11 November) and made an important report on Morocco (in 27 pages) which he sent to Lord Algernon Percy. The report was wholly reprinted by Bois Penrose in 1929 under this title.

17- Lancelot Addison, The Moors Baffled. (1668)

West Barbary. A Short Narrative of the Revolutions of the Kingdoms of Fez and Morocco, with an Account of the Present Customs, Sacred, Civil and Domestic. (1671)

The Present State of the Jews in Barbary. (1675)

The first book mentions both the difficulties caused by the agitator Ghaylan to the English garrison at Tangier in 1664, and another memorable siege that took place a few years later (1668). The second book offers a broad knowledge about the country that Addison had visited and provides information which Addison discovered through his conversations with the Moors. The third book, as the title shows, is an account of the beliefs, ceremonies, and religious customs of Moroccan Jews. (27)

18- John Balthorpe, The Streights Voyage. (A poem)

John Balthorpe was among the English expedition against the ‘pirates’ of Algiers, which anchored in Tangier in August 11, 1669. The poem describes, among other things, the siege of Tangier by Ghaylan, the usurper of Fez. (28)

19- Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), The Diary of Samuel Pepys, esq. from 1659 to 1669.

The Life, Journals and Correspondence of S. Pepys, Including a Narrative of his Voyage to Tangier (Published by Rev. John Smith)

When in London, Pepys was a member of the "Committee for the affairs of Tangier" as a treasurer. In 1683 he accompanied Lord Dartmouth to Morocco, as a secretary and a councillor. The latter was sent by King Charles II to Tangier to repatriate the garrison after having destroyed the fortress. In his Diary, he twice insists on the difficult position of this city ‘overseen by the Moors.’ (29) As a document of social history, Pepys’ Diary is "unsurpassed for its rich detail, honesty, and immediacy… It gives us the sense of … what it was like to live in the Restoration, and what it was like to see through the eyes of Pepys." (30)

20- Hugh Cholmley, Account of Tangier.

Cholmley’s account confirms the very provincial character of garrison life in Tangier. (31)

21- John Ross, Tangier Rescue, or Relation of the Late Memorable Passages at Tangier and of the Bloody Engagement (1681).

This account refers to the siege of Tangier by Ghaylan. It was written in verse, and is not simply an account of the siege, but a recapitulation of all the skirmishes that preceded the attack of 1680. (32)

22- Captain Johnson, An Account from Fez. (1682)

Johnson was a member of the embassy under colonel Kirke to Muolay Ismaël in Meknes. (33)

23- Adam Elliot, A Narrative of my Travels, Captivity and Escape from Salle in the Kingdom of Fez. (published 1682)

Elliot, a priest in the Anglican Church, gives in his account details of the tactics of Sale ‘pirates’ and the high risks run by the captives who attempted to escape from the country. (34)

24- Thomas Phelps, A True Account of Thomas Phelps at Machanes [Meknes] in Barbary and of his Strange Escape in Company of Edmund Baxter and Others, as also of the Burning of Two of the Greatest Pirateships Belonging to that Kingdom in the River of Mamora. (1685)

Even though the style of this account is "rough and simple", it contains very interesting information on the attacking methods of "Salli rovers" and the poor treatment of prisoners and slaves. (35)

25- Francis Brooks, Barbarian Cruelty, Being a true History of the Distress Condition of the Christian Captives under the Tyranny of Muley Ismael. [1693]

Francis Brooks spent 10 years in Meknes as a prisoner of war during the reign of Moulay Ismael. (36)

26- Simon Ockley, An Account of South-West Barbary; Containing What is most Remarkable in the Territories of the King of Fez and Morocco. London, 1713.

Ockley, who was sent to Morocco by the English, wrote his account on what was most attractive in Morocco at that time. (37) But the real author of the original account is unknown. This is clear from the full title given by Roland Lebel, "...written by a person who has been a slave there a considerable time, and published from his auhentick manuscript by Simon Ockley." The account aimed both at showing the deplorable state of Christians under the Muslim yoke, and providing a general survey of the country and its people. (38)

27- John Windus: A Journey to Mequinez, the Residence of the Present Emperor of Fez and Morocco, on the Occasion of Commodore Stewart’s Ambassy Thither for the Redemption of the British Captives in the Year 1721. London, 1725. Dublin, 1726. (39)

John Windus made his trip to Morocco as part of the diplomatic mission sent by Georges I to Sultan Moulay Ismael. The object of the embassy was to negotiate the release of the English prisoners in Meknes. In this highly important account, John Windus recorded his descriptions, impressions and commentaries on the different places he visited (from Tetouan to Meknes). When he went back to England he completed his travel account by consulting other references. The book was soon translated into German in 1726, and it was reprinted a third time in Henry Boyde’s Several Voyages to Barbary in 1930. (40) The book was also translated into Arabic by Zahra Ikhwan in 1993. (41)

28- Captain John Braithwaite: The History of the Revolutions in the Empire of Morocco, upon the Death of the Late Emperor Muley Ismael; Being a most exact Journal of what happen’d in those Parts in the last and part of the present Year. With Observations Natural, Moral and Political, relating of that Country and People…

Captain Braithwaite accompanied the English Consul-General, John Russel, to Morocco in 1727, and was ‘an eye-witness to the most remarkable occurrences therein mentioned.’ (pp. 48-49) The mission of this delegation, which stayed about five months in Morocco, was to free some English prisoners under former treaties signed between the two countries. The book, which also includes a map of the country, was printed in London by J. Darby and T. Browne in Bartholomew-Close, in 1729. It was translated into Arabic by Mina Madini as a DES thesis. (42) Its success was confirmed by the fact that it was translated into French as early as 1931, then into German and Dutch. (43) It was reprinted by Mnemosyne Publishing Co., Inc., Miami, Florida, 1969 (from a copy in the University of Miami).

29- Henry Boyde, Several Voyages to Barbary, London, 1730. (Reprinted in 1736)

Henry Boyde was also a prisoner of war in Meknes. He was among the English subjects who were freed by Charles Stewart, the English ambassador to Moulay Ismael. (44) But this is, in fact, only an English copy of the French account published in 1725 under the title, Relation en forme de journal du voyage pour la rédemption ds captifs aux royaumes de Maroc et d’Alger, par les PP. Jean de La Faye, Denis Mackar, Augustin d’Arcisas et Henry Le Roy, députés de l’ordre de Sainte Trinité. Boyde added only a list of captives and engravings to illustrate the text. (45)

30- Thomas Shaw:

This theologian traveller made many visits to different parts of North Africa and the Middle East. Then, in 1738, he published a book about all his travels. The account provides a wealth of information on different disciplines ranging from geography to physics and jurisprudence. (46)

31- Thomas Pellow (1704 – after 1738): The History of the Long Captivity and Adventures of Thomas Pellow, In South-Barbary….Written by Himself. The Second Edition. Printed for R. Goadby, and sold by W. Owen, Bookseller, at Temple Bar, London. The first edition was between 1742 and 1745.

Thomas Pellow spent most of his life in Morocco, first as a war captive (in 1716), then as a soldier in the army of Mullay Ismael. After his conversion to Islam, he married a Moroccan woman from Tamesna in 1721. During his military service he contributed to military campaigns that gave him the opportunity to see different parts of Morocco and places such as Meknes, Oujda, Marrakech, Ait ‘Attab, Kasbat Tadla, Agadir, Safi, and Oualidiyyah. After 23 years in Morocco, he managed at last to escape and return to his native Cornwall, England. He then wrote this long account of his life and adventures in Morocco. But after this date (1738) he disappeared. The book is also – as the long title of the original edition puts it – ‘a particular Account of the Manners and Customs of the MOORS; the astonishing Tyranny and Cruelty of their EMPERORS, and a relation of all those great Revolutions and Bloody Wars which happen’d in the Kingdoms of Fez and Morocco, between the Years 1720 and 1736.’ (47) This account is an important historical document about 18th-century Morocco. It was translated into French by Magali Morsy in 1983. (48)

32- Thomas Troughton, Barbarian Cruelty, or an Accurate and Impartial Narrative of the Unparalleled Sufferings and Almost Incredible Hardships of he British Captives…, 1751.

Troughton was among the English sailors captured in the bay of Tangier after the wreck of their ship, the "Inspector". Employed in the army of Moulay Abdallah, they suffered ill-treatment and hunger. Eight of them died in the country; about twenty of them became Muslims; four were given by the Sultan to King George II; and the rest were later released for a ransom.(49)

33- Lieutenant Colonel Jardine, Letters from Barbary, Spain, France… (1788)

Jardine was appointed as a representative of the English government to Sultan Mohammed Ibn Abdallah. But the part of this text which deals with Morocco is very brief . (50)

34- William Lemprière, A Tour from Gibraltar to Tangier, Sallée, Mogador, Santa-Cruz, Tarudant, and Thence over Mount Atlas to Morocco, Including a Particular Account of the Royal Harem. London, 1791 & 1973. (51)

Lemprière is an English surgeon who came from Gibraltar to Sultan Mohamed Ibn Abdallah who needed a doctor for his son. He travelled to Tangier in 1789 and to Marrakech – in the company of a Jewish guide and traveller – through the different cities and places mentioned in the title of the book. The book deals with topics such as geography, ethnology, and economy in Morocco at the end of the 18th century, to the extent that it became an important reference-book for historians. (52) Nevertheless, the book was harshly criticized by a contemporary witness, Caid Dris, on account of the ‘complete incredibility’ of Lemprière when he analysed manners, religion, institutions, dynastic and monarchic principles. Caid Dris’ real name is Jonas Francisco Zigers, who was originally Dutch ; he converted to Islam and lived in Morocco from 1778 to 1792 for intelligence reasons. (53) The whole text of his critique of Lempriere’s book is edited in Hespéris Tamuda, 1988-1989 under the title, Lempriere, Cirujano ingles. Refutacion de su obra: Un viaje a Marruecos. (54)

35- James Curtis, A Journal of Travels in Barbary in the Year 1801. (Published in 1803)

This account was written by anEnglish doctor who practiced in Morocco. Curtis was sent from Gibraltar to Fez. (55)

36- James Grey Jackson, Account of the Empire of Morocco and the District of Suse (1809).

The book is an example of the geographic literature about Morocco that flourished at the beginning of the 19th century. Being a consular agent at Mogador and Agadir, Jackson was well placed to give such a ‘precious study of physical and economic geography’ of Morocco at the time. (56)

37- John Buffa, Travels Through the Empire of Morocco, (published in 1810).

These two accounts were written by two other English doctors who practiced in Morocco. The first – Curtis – was sent from Gibraltar to Fez. The second – Buffa – went to Larache, in 1806, to treat its governor, then he visited Meknes and Fez. (57)

38- Keatinge, Travels in Europe and Africa (1816)

Colonel Keatinge accompanied M. Payne who was sent to Sultan Moulay Abdallah. The book includes a travel narrative of his trip from Mogador to Marrakech and Tangier. It also includes documentary information about the country: its social life, its agricultural production, and some historical references. (58)

39- G. Beauclerk, A Journey to Morocco in 1826,

Beauclerk accompanied Dr Brown during his medical mission to Marrakech. (59)

40- Henry Bishop (1868-1939)

This painter made several journeys to North Africa. Some of his paintings were executed in Tetouan and shown at the gallery of Spink and Son Ltd. in London, in 1926.

"Mr. Bishop sees North Africa", Burlington Magazine, vol. 76, 1926, pp. 261-ff. (60)

41- Arthur Brooke, Sketches in Spain and Morocco, (1830).

Brooke toured the cities of Tangier, Tetouan and Larache, and gave original and interesting descriptions of these places in this account. (61)

42- William Allan (1782-1850),

This Scottish traveller and painter made several trips around the Mediterranean Sea, and came to Morocco in 1834. (62)

43- Thomas Roscoe, The Tourist in Spain and Morocco. London, 1838. (63)

44- David UrquhartThe Pillars of Hercules or A Narrative of Travels in Spain and Morocco in 1848. London, 1850.

Urquhart, who was a member of the House of Commons, came to Morocco in 1848. (64) During his voyage in Morocco, he was interested in the relation between Berbers and the Celts. (65)

45- Elizabeth Murray (1815-1882): Sixteen Years of an Artist’s Life in Morocco, Spain and the Canary Islands. (London, 1859, 2 vols.)

She made a trip to Tangier and recorded her impressions of the city and its people in this book. She wrote that the city reminded her of the Arabian Nights and the Bible, and as though she had gone back two thousand years. (66)

46- Frederick Hardman, The Spanish Campaign in Morocco, (1860).

Hardman, who had been an accredited correspondent of the Times, gathered the articles and letters that he had sent from Spain about the different operations of the Spanish in their march on Tetouan. (67)

47- James Richardson, Travels in Morocco, (1860). (68)

48- John Drummond Hay, Western Barbary, its Wild Tribes and Savage Animals. London, 1861. This book was translated into French by Mme Louise S. Belloc, Le Maroc et ses tribus nomades. (Paris: A. Bertrand Editeur, 1944). (69)

A Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay, Sometime Minister at the Court of Morocco, Based on his Journals and Correspondence. London, 1891. (70)

He travelled to the northern regions of Morocco in 1838. Then he was nominated as the representative of England in Morocco from 1844 to 1886. Moroccan historians consider him a false friend to Morocco, who pretended that England, unlike France and Spain, was willing to aid Morocco. (71)

 49- David Roberts (1796-1864):

He is among the most famous Orientalist painters. He made several trips to Egypt, Palestine and Morocco. In his trip from Tetouan to Tangier, he said, he wore Arab clothes, rode an Arab horse and lived in an Arab tent. (72) His Moroccan adventures whetted his appetite for other travels to the Middle-East. (73)

50- Thomas Hodgkin, Narrative of a Journey to Morocco, 1863. London, 1866. (74)

51- John Evan Hodgson (1831-1895):

Hodgson visited and painted North Africa, mainly Tunis and Tangier. Thanks to the Orientalist subject of his paintings, Hodgson was classified as an "ethnographic" painters. In 1869, he exhibited The Arab Story Teller. Hodgson always preferred to illustrate scenes of confrontation between the East and the West, as in his painting Far From Home (1889), where curiosity seems to be reciprocal between a British sailor in uniform and a throng of Moors. The other paintings include Army Reorganization in Morocco (1872)

52- George Maw, Ascent of the great Atlas, (1872).

Maw, who explored this part of the country, also wrote a chapter on the geology of Morocco and included it in the book of Sir Joseph Hooker (cf).

53- John Bagnold Burgess (1829-1897)

During a short period after 1872, Moorish subjects appeared among the paintings that he sent to the Royal Academy. The Presentation (1874) shows an English lady introduced into a Moroccan residence. Guarding the Hostages (1880) seems to be his last Orientalist painting. Such paintings, which also include The Rush for Water, Scene During Ramadan in Morocco (1873), indicate that he made several trips to Morocco.(75)

54- Amelia Perrier, A Winter in Morocco, (1873).

Perrier tells, in a ‘very sincere accent’, about her Tangerine residence during a less agitated period.(76)

55- Arthur Leared, Marocco and the Moors, (1876). (77)

A Visit to the Court of Morocco, (1879).

Arthur Leared came to Morocco in September, 1872. Then his trip led him from Tangier down the coast through places such as Al-Kasru’ l-Kabir, ‘Casa Blanca’, Mogador, Marocco (Marrakech), Saffi, and Azamoor. In the first book Leared describes his itinerary in the first chapter, then he dedicates the remaining chapters to the country, its people and different issues as government, law, military power, education, religion, education, religion, history, drugs and even sport. The appendix includes an account of Volubilis and an important list of drugs and plants in use among the Moroccans, of which he "made an extensive collection of specimens. The information obtained by this means was communicated to the Pharmaceutical Society… and published in their journal." (78)

In the other book, A Visit to the Court of Morocco, we find, among other things, a description of a Portuguese demonstration on the occasion of the accession of the new Sultan in Fez (79)

56- Joseph D. Hooker and J. Ball, Journal of a Tour in Morocco and the Great Atlas. London, Macmillan, 1878.

Hooker was president of the Royal Geographical Society. He published this book just after having travelled into the Moroccan Atlas. (80) He was a botanist and the director of Kew Gardens (London). He came to Morocco to collect samples of plants; he took a great many species back to England, some of which are still in Kew. (81) This is one of the books on which Wyndham Lewis relied in writing his travel accounts.

57- Sarcelle (alias Payton), Moss from a Rolling Stone, (1879).

The author devotes the major part of "Rambling Reminiscence" in his book to his hunting experiences in Morocco. (82)

58- Dr Spence Watson, A Visit to Wazzan, (1880).

The author is an example of those Christian travellers who dared to visit Moroccan cities they considered as sacred. But the book is rather biased. (83)

59- Captain Colville, A Ride in Petticoats and Slippers, (1880).

Dressed as a Moroccan , Captain Colville travelled, with his wife, from Fez to Oujda and gathered useful information in spite of the difficulty of the journey. (84)

60- Philip Durham Trotter, Our Mission to the Court of Marocco in 1880, Under Sir John Drummond Hay, K.C.B., Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to his Majesty the Sultan, 1881. (85)

This is the detailed account of the mission that was entrusted to Sir John Drummond Hay as minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary to Mulai Hassan in Fez. The author described everything he saw during the trip of the mission from Tangier to Fez and Meknes, and their coming back through Rabat, Larache and Azîla. This included descriptions of courtesans, king’s substitutes, snake charmers, ceremonies, places, ethnic groups, ... etc. But his descriptions were not always accurate: "The art of printing," Trotter says, "is, of course, unknown, and, with a few exceptions, no one can read or write." On the aims of the mission, Trotter stated that "negotiations are, however, to be entered into at Tangier for the improvement of trade, for which purpose a port on the coast, south of Mogador, is to be opened." (86) The political results of the mission, according to Trotter, were "the Revision of the Convention of Commerce and Navigation of 1856 between Greta Britain and Marocco, and the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Sultans of Turkey and of this country… A better supply of water is also guaranteed for the town of Tangier, between which place and Gibraltar heliographic communication… is to be established." (pp. 292-293) Of the various ingredients of the Moroccan population, Trotter thought ‘the Berber element the fairest-complexioned and best-looking, the Bokhari, the biggest-limbed and most powerful, while the Arab of the plain – of whom the Beni Hassan are an excellent type – is the most wiry and enduring-looking of the lot..' (87)

61- Howard Vyse, A Winter in Morocco, (1882). (88)

Vyse was one of those winter visitors who chose to make the ‘classical’ move to Tangier during the second half of the 19th century.

62- Ch. Warner, Across Africa, (1882).

This is rather a ‘pompous title’ (89) for such a very short and ordinary journey; Warner ‘crossed’ Africa from Tangier to Tetouan.

63- Hugh E. M. Stutfield, Four Months in Morocco, (1882). (90)

El Maghreb: 1200 Miles Ride Through Morocco. London, 1886. (91)

Almost the whole account is dedicated to the author’s experience of hunting in Morocco.

64- Charles Robertson (1844-1891)

He came to North Africa in 1882, and in the next year he exhibited at the Royal Academy. While in Tangier, he finished many of his Moroccan paintings such as the Fruiterer, Tangier and Story-Teller, Morocco (1883). (92) His paintings also include A Story Teller, Morocco (1883) and The Flower Market, Damascus. (93)

65- Edward Waltham, Our Journey to Fez, (1882).

Waltham went to Fez in the company of his wife and his son, and recorded his impressions in a ‘charming’ style. (94)

66/67- Cowan & Johnston, Moorish Lotos Leaves, (1883)

The book gives descriptive and copious "glimpses of southern Morocco," between Mogador [Essaouira], Marrakech and Agadir. (95)

68- Joseph Crawhall (1861-1913):

He made studies of animal behaviour for his paintings. Among his paintings: An Arab Raid and Snake Charmer. He spent 10 years in North Africa, but most of this period was spent in Morocco, particularly in Tangier, where he met John Lavery and Cunninghame Graham. The latter dedicated an edifying chapter of his memories, Writ in Sand (London, 1932), to Crawhall in his Tangerine period (1884-1893). (96)

69- Thomas Alexander Ferguson Graham (1840-1906)

In 1885 Tom Graham came to Morocco and probably executed Kismet, showing a young lady surprised by her horoscope drawn on the floor with a piece of chalk. Ackerman states that such a painting was so conventional in its conception of the Orient that it could have been executed in London. A year after this journey, he exhibited The Moor of Mequinez at the Royal Academy. (97)

70- Donald Mackenzie, The Flooding of the Sahara… Description of Sudan and Western Sahara. London, 1877.

The Khalifat of the West, Being a General Description of Morocco. London, 1911. (98)

A Report on the Condition of the Empire of Morocco. London, 1886. (99)

71- Robert S. Watson, A Visit to Wazan, the Sacred City of Morocco. London, 1880. (100)

72- Rev. Verschoyle, Among the Arabs of West Africa, (1885).

Rev. Verschoyle travelled through the country from Tangier to Fez, and describes in this account the manners and customs of the local people. (101)

73- Hind-Smith, A Boy’s Rambles, (1886).

In this volume, the author tells of his travels in Larache, Meknes and Fez. (102)

74- Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco. London, 1889.(103)

This is the second – and more detailed – of Thomson's books. The first one is entitled, A Journey to Southern Morocco and the Atlas Mountains. Both books include a description of explorations made by the author in these regions of the country.(104)

75- Walter B. Harris, The Land of an African Sultan, 1889.

Tafilelt: the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration in the Atlas Mountains and the Oases of the North-West Sahara. Edinburg, 1895. (105)

Morocco that Was, 1921. Reprinted: Westerport: Negro Universities Press, 1970. (106)

Walter Harris, the correspondent of the Times in Morocco, travelled through the regions of Wazzan and Chechaouen maybe for hidden political reasons. (107) The first book is one of the books used by Wyndham Lewis in his own travel accounts. By wandering through the country in native clothes, Walter Harris ‘crosses cultural bridges, violates national barriers, and denies difference by becoming artificially Other.’ (108) Living in Tangier from the 1890s to 1933, he could see and describe Morocco at probably the strangest stage in its history – the last years of "Old Morocco" in its feudal isolation and the first of French occupation. (109)

76- Henry Finck, Studies in Local Colour, (1891).

The ‘studies’ are limited to describing a very restricted region of Morocco: Tangier and Tetouan. (110)

77- Margaret Thomas, A Scamper through Tangier, (1892). (111)

This is, in fact, an accurate title because Margaret Thomas paid only a short visit to the city.

78- Stephen Bonsal (1865-1951), Morocco as It is. With an Account of Sir Charles Euan Smith’s Recent Mission to Fez, 1893. (112)

The account of this American Correspondent of the New York World is a trite report on the diplomatic mission of Sir Charles Smith to Fez in 1892. He was sent to different places in Europe and came to Morocco in November 1891 and stayed for several months. Among the things that he described in Morocco, "the most striking scene of all" was the entry of the rebels to the town to take the oath of loyalty to the new Pasha.(113)

79- Frank Brangwyn (1867-1956):

A traveller painter who spent several months in Tangier in 1894. He painted architecture and settings of Tangier such as: The Kasbah, Tangier and Arabs, Tangier.

While in Tangier in the company of Dudley Hardy, another artist, they hired a Moroccan to provide them with models to paint. Gerald M. Ackerman reports that one day the Moroccan brought them two snake-charmers who put their bags down and started to play their instruments. The snakes began to crawl around the floor, thus terrorising Brangwyn and Hardy who took refuge in the rafters of the roof. (114) In this year, he exhibited his Buccaneers at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris. In his paintings, ‘Brangwyn showed a brilliant sense of attitudes and composition, served with theatrical exaggeration and a dramatic instinct.’ (115)

80- G. Montbard, Among the Moors, (1894).

The account includes "sketches of oriental life" in Fez and other Cherifian capitals. (116)

81- Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), Mogreb-el-Acksa. A Journey in Morocco (1898). (117)

Cunninghame Graham came to Morocco at the end of the 19th century and sojourned in places such as Tangier, Safi, Mogador (Essaouira), Amezmiz, Marrakech, ... etc. He recorded his impressions in this book which he first edited in December 9, 1898. The author has a keen eye as regards the country, its people and their culture, and comments on everything he sees while moving from one place to another and learning from different kinds of people. A cross-section of Morocco is represented in tirades like this one:

"The truth is, in Morocco, when one reflects upon the inconveniences of the country, the lonely roads, the places apparently designed by Providence to make men brigands, and the fact that almost every Arab owns a horse and is armed at least with a stout knife, that the inhabitants are either cowardly to a degree, are law-abiding to a fault, or else deprived by nature of initiative to such extent as to be quite Arcadian in the foolish way in which they set about to rob. When I remembered Mexico (…) So Morocco seemed to me a perfect paradise." (118)

The book is seen as important by British and Americans. Edward Garnett hails it as ‘that rare thing, a spontaneous work of art. It is written with a verve and a brilliancy of tone that make it unique in English books of travel.’ (119) Cunnigham Graham is also the author of Writ in Sand, (London,1932) in which he gives a particular description of ‘international’ Tangier.

When Barnaby Rogerson mentions Walter Harris (N° 77) and Robert Cunninghame Graham, he evokes a particular aspect of their writings: "You do not have to scratch very deeply beneath their writing to realise that both Harris and Cunninghame Graham aspired to some form of British protection for Morocco, like that which would later be established over the Arab states of the Persian Gulf." (120)

82- Budgett Meakin, The Moorish Empire. London, 1899.

The Moors. London, 1902.

Life in Morocco. London, 1905. (121)

Budgett Meakin was the first chief editor of The Times of Morocco, the only journal in English at the time in Morocco; the journal appeared first as a monthly in Tangier in 1884, then as a weekly in 1886. Budgett Meakin studied spoken Arabic in Morocco, and became, in fact, a historian of Morocco and Moroccans. Commenting on Mabel Collins’ novel Ida, an Adventure in Morocco (1890), Budgett Meakin remarks: ‘No wonder people have strange ideas about Morocco if they read such stuff.’ (122)

83- Francis Macnab, A Ride in Morocco: Among Traders and Believers. London: Edward Arnold, 1902.

Francis Macnab visited different places of Morocco at a crucial time when this country was being divided between the colonial powers. He visited places such as Tangier, Tetouan, the Riff, Rabat, Casablanca, Marrakech, and Safi. ‘This geographical journey,’ Sadik Rddad points out, ‘is undertaken in a parallel with a retrospective journey into the history of Morocco and an exploration of architecture, social activities, festivities, ceremonies, beliefs, the Harem, the confraternity "savage" practices of the Aissaouas and Gnaoua.’ (123)

84- Lady Agnes Grove, Seventy One Days’ Camping in Morocco. London: Longman, 1902.

She visited Morocco in 1902. Her book can be classified amongst writings ‘[j]ustifying the Western presence in Morocco.’ (124)

85- A. J. Dowson, "Morocco. The Moors and the Lowers", The Contemporary Review, 1903, pp. 225-242. (125)

86 - Isabella Bird (1831-1905): A Traveller’s Testimony, 1905.

Isabella Bird (1831-1904) travelled on doctor's orders. She suffered back pains and insomnia, and she was advised that a sea voyage and a 'change of air' would restore her health. At the age of forty, she began her travels to many parts of the world to the extent that for the next thirty years she scarcely had time to unpack. She crossed the Atlas Mountains in Morocco at the age of seventy. Her writing is notable for its immediacy, which is the result of her basing her books on letters written home to her sister, or on voluminous notebooks compiled at the time. (126)

87- Major A. Gibbon Spilsbury, The Tourmaline Expedition, With an Appendix on South-West Barbary as a Field for Colonization by W. B. Stewart. London, 1906. (127)

88- Augustus Osborne Lamplough (1877-1930): Cairo and its Environs, London, 1909, and Egypt and How to See it, London, 1911.

This painter, who was also a Professor at the School of Arts in Leeds, came to North Africa in 1904. From that date on, the subjects of his paintings were inspired by what he had seen in Morocco, Algeria and Egypt. Among his tableau are Desert Scout. (128)

89- George Edmund Hott, Morocco the Piquant, or Life in Sunset Island, London, 1914. (129)

90- R. Caton Woodville (1856-1927): Random Reminiscences. (London, 1914.) (130)

In 1886 he took part in a reconnaissance mission in Morocco territory. The Mission consisted of 16 officers and about 800 men. He recorded his descriptions and impressions in this book.

91- Lady Dorothy Mills, The Road to Timbuktu. London, 1924. (131)

92- Alys Lowth, A Wayfarer in Morocco, London, 1929. (132)

93- Wyndham Lewis, Journey into Barbary. Morocco Writings and Drawings, (1932). (133)

This book consists of two books: Filibusters in Barbary, published in 1932, and Kasbahs and Souks, which was not published before. (134) A writer and a painter, Wyndham Lewis came to Morocco in the Spring of 1931. He sojourned in many places from the north-west (Oujda) to the South (Rio de Oro) through Fez, Casablanca, Marrakech, Agadir and Sous… In his travel accounts he was inspired by the travel writings of his predecessors. The result is that the book is full of prejudice. It also contains drawings on Morocco, ‘representing a fanciful, purely visual savouring of the landscape, architecture and people.’ (135)

94- James McBey (1883-1959):

He came to Morocco in 1932 and bought a house in Tangier. Then he made a trip through North Africa crossing the Atlas. After the Second World War he came back to Morocco and founded a painting studio in Tangier. (136)

95- E. W. Bovil, Caravans of the Old Sahara. An Introduction to the Western Sudan, London, 1933. (137)

96- Michel Vienchange, Smara, the Forbidden City. Being the Journal of Michel Vienchange While Travelling Among the Independent Tribes of South Morocco and Rio de Oro. London, 1933. (138)

97- G. Ward Price: In Morocco with the Legion. London, 1934. (139)

This book is Price’s account of his Moroccan experience. Being the special correspondent of the Daily Mail, he came to Morocco especially to pay a visit to the Moroccan leader of the Rif war, Mohamed Ben Abdelkarim Khattabi, whom he met in April 1924. In his reports, he described his dangerous trip from French Morocco to the headquarters of this leader. Ward Price was the first one to give an external view of ‘Abdelkrim.’ Unlike many journalists of the moment, he presented a positive image of this leader to the English and American readers of the Daily Mail and Herald Tribune. (140)

98- John Lavery (1856-1941): Autobiography, London, 1940.

This painter spent 30 winters in Tangier between 1890 and 1920. In 1906, he made an excursion into the country with Walter Harris and Selwyn Brinton. The latter made a detailed account of this visit in his article "An English Artist in Morocco", Connoisseur, vol. 19, 1907. John Lavery recorded his impressions of Morocco in his Autobiography, and in paintings like At the Mosque Gate, 1891, Habiba, 1892, and CSS Delhi [ship], Sidi Cassam, Morocco. He was a painter of North Africa, but he never penetrated the life of its population. The Moroccan landscape and atmosphere and the Tangerine architecture are painted with great love, but the indigenous people of the places and terraces are mere indistinct spots. (141)

99- Nina Epton, Journey Under the Crescent Moon. London, 1949. (142)

100- Peter Mayne (1908-1979), A Year in Marrakech, 1953. First published as ed as The Alleys of Marrakech. London: Eland, 1990.

When Peter Mayne came to Marrakech, he bought a house in one of the streets of this city in order to settle there. In his book, he describes Marrakech, its people, their way of life and their customs. (143)

101- Robin Bryans, Morocco: Land of the Farthest West, 1965. (144)

Robin Bryans’ tour included Tanger, Tetouan, Chaouen, Fez, Ifrane, Meknes, Moulay Idris, Volubilis, Rabat, Casablanca, Marrakech, Ouarzazate, Taroudant, Agadir, Essaouira, Safi, and El-Jadida, that he considered as ‘the farthest west I would go during that journey’ (p. 226). In his accounts of these places, he gives information about their history, people, ethnic groups, traditions, in addition to his own experiences as a tourist, all in a mock-heroic, mock-scholarly style. He also mentions, comments on and quotes some travellers who preceded him to Morocco, such as Samuel Pepys (p. 17), Thomas Pellow of Penryn (p. 92), Simon Ockley (p. 93), John Windus (p. 96), and Colonel Trotter (p. 105). The ‘Preliminaries’ of his travel account can be considered as an homage to Morocco and Moroccans on the part of a traveller who tries to be different from his predecessors: "The first thing a visitor learns in Morocco is not to be suspicious of friendliness. The second is not to be surprised (…) Moroccans love to talk and to laugh, and the stranger is welcome who does the same. Friendship is sacred. Under those blue skies it is simple. It also imposes an obligation to return to their sun one day." (pp. 13-14).

102 – Gavin Maxwell, Lords of the Atlas, 1966.

Maxwell's book, a vivid mixture of history, investigative journalism and anecdote, was destined to take a particularly strong hold over the British imagination. It is an obsessive work that took the author over a decade to complete and is strongly fuelled by his own experience and personal sympathies. But he also quotes great chunks of Harris verbatim. (145).


Index of Travellers

Lancelot Addison, § 17

James Aldy, § 1

William Allan, § 42

John Balthorpe, § 18

G. Beauclerk, § 39

Isabella Bird, § 86

Henry Bishop, § 40

Robert Blake, § 14

Roger Bodenham, § 3

Stephen Bonsal, § 78

E. W. Bovil, § 95

Henry Boyde, § 29

Captain John Braithwaite, § 28

Frank Brangwyn, § 79

Arthur Brooke, § 41

Francis Brooks, § 25

Robin Bryans, § 101

John Buffa, § 37

John Bagnold Burgess, § 53

George Carteret, § 16

Hugh Cholmley, § 20

Captain Colville, §59

John Cooke, see Fletcher, § 6

Robert Cottington, § 8

Cowan, § 66/67

Joseph Crawhall, § 68

James Curtis, § 35

A. J. Dowson, § 85

John Dunton, § 13.

Adam Elliot, § 23

Nina Epton, § 99

Henry Finck, § 76

Francis Fletcher, § 6

Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, § 81

Thomas Alexander Ferguson Graham, § 69

Lady Agnes Grove, § 84

Frederick Hardman, § 46

Walter B. Harris, § 75

John Harrison, § 12

John Drummond Hay, § 48

Hind-Smith, § 73

Thomas Hodgkin, § 50

John Evan Hodgson, § 51

Edmond Hogan, § 4

Joseph D. Hooker, § 56

George Edmund Hott, § 89

James Grey Jackson, § 36

Lieutenant colonel Jardine, § 33

Captain Johnson, § 22

Johnston, § 66/67

Keatinge, § 38

Augustus Osborne Lamplough, § 88

John Lavery, § 98

Arthur Leared, § 55

William Lemprière, § 34

Wyndham Lewis, § 93

William Lithgow, § 10

Alys Lowth, § 92

Donald Mackenzie, § 70

Francis Macnab, § 83

George Maw, § 52

Gavin Maxwell, § 102

Peter Mayne, § 100

James McBey, § 94

Budgett Meakin, § 82

Lady Dorothy Mills, § 91

G. Montbard, § 80

Elizabeth Murray, § 45

Simon Ockley, § 26

Thomas Pellow, § 31

Samuel Pepys, § 19

Amelia Perrier, § 54

Thomas Phelps, § 24

G. Ward Price, § 97

James Richardson, § 47

David Roberts, § 49

Henry Roberts, § 7

Charles Robertson, § 64

Thomas Roscoe, § 43

John Ross, § 21

Sarcelle (alias Payton) , § 57

Stephen Scot, § 15

Thomas Shaw, § 30

Anthony Sherley, § 9

John Smith, § 11

Major A. Gibbon Spilsbury, § 87

Hugh E. M. Stutfield, § 63

James Thomas, § 2

Margaret Thomas, § 77

Joseph Thomson, § 74

Philip Durham Trotter, § 60

Thomas Troughton, § 32

David Urquhart, § 44

Verschoyle, § 72

Michel Vienchange, § 96

Howard Vyse, § 61

Ch. Warner, § 62

Robert S. Watson, § 71

Dr. Spence Watson, § 58

Edward Waltham, § 65

John Williams, § 5

John Windus, § 27

R. Caton Woodville, § 92




1. Khalid Bekkaoui, "Introduction: The Battle of Alcazar and Entry of Morocco into English Literature," in George Peele, The Battle of Alcazar. Edited by K. Bekkaoui., Moroccan Cultural Studies Centre, Fez (Casablanca: Imprimerie An-Najah al-Jadida, 2001) 1.

2. E. J. Hobsbawm, The Pelican Economic History of Britain. Volume 3: From 1750 to the Present Day. Industry and Empire (London: Penguin Books, 1969) 207.

3. Martine Ricoux-Faure, «  Résurrection du livre de voyage britannique », Europe, avril 1993, N° 768, p. 28. (My translation.) The original text is : « L’écrivain voyageur, produit d’une classe de gentlemen aventuriers, ou d’une intelligentsia cosmopolite, devait disparaître avec l’Empire. L’ancien monde s’était écoulé, il s’était hérissé de frontières, et surtout que restait-il à découvrir ? Waugh voit avec une épouvante le tourisme de masse remplacer l’aventure. »

4. Khalid Chaouch, European Travels to Morocco in Encyclopédie du Maroc, Encyclopedia of Morocco, Vol. 13 ( Sale : Imprimerie Sala, 2001/1422H) 4297.

5. Martine Ricoux-Faure, 28. The original text is : "Le travel-writing est une spécialité britannique aussi inimitable que le roastbeef sauce à la menthe: un plat consistant et fantaisiste, surprenant et inoubliable. »

6. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais ( Paris : Larose, 1939), 80-90.

7. Roland Lebel, 89-90.

8. Barnaby Rogerson, "Through a glass darkly: North Africa as seen through English travel writing," in

9. Sir R. Lambert Playfair and Dr. Robert Lambert, A Bibliography of Morocco from the Earliest Times to the End of 1891 (London, 1892), Quoted from Lebel, 146-147.

10. Henry de Castries, Les Sources inédites de l’histoire du Maroc. Première Série : Angleterre – Dynastie Saadienne 1530-1660. Tome I (Paris: Ernest Leroux ; London : Luzac, 1918) 14.

11. Henry de Castries, 17.

12. Henry de Castries, 141, 363.

13. Henry de Castries, 225, 239-249.

14. Henry de Castries 199-205.

15. Henry de Castries 280-285.

16. Henry de Castries, Vol. I. (500, 510, 543) and vol. II (222-228).

17. Abdel-Aziz Benabdallah, Travels from and to Morocco in History (Rabat: Dar Nashr al-Maarifah, 2001) 78.

18. Henry de Castries, Vol I. (274). See also P. G. Rogers, A History of Anglo-Morocan Relations to 1900. Arabic translation by Yunan Labib Rizq 1900 ( Casablanca: Dar Takafa, 1401/1981) 55-56.

19. De Castries, Vol I., 491.

20. Roland Lebel, 21.

21. Henry de Castries, Les Sources inédites de l’histoire du Maroc. Première Série : Angleterre – Dynastie Saadienne. Vol II (Paris: Paul Gueuthner ; London : Luzac & Co., 1925) 266-273.

22. De Castries, Vol I, 441, and P. G. Rogers, 58-64.

23. Roland Lebel, «Le Maroc dans les relations des voyageurs anglais aux XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles » , Hespéris Tamuda, Vol. IX, 1929 (279).

24. Henry De Castries, Vol I, (490).

25. Henry De Castries, 393.

26. Henry De Castries, 442.

27. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 62, 65, 66.

28. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 61-62.

29. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais , 70-71.

30. M. H. Abrams et al., The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Vol. I. (New York & London: W. W. Norton, 1986) 1851-52.

31. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 69-70.

32. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 62-63.

33. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 63.

34. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 81.

35. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 82.

36. Zahra Ikhwan, A Journey to Meknes , Introduction & Comments by Abdellatif Chadli, 7-15 (Meknes: Publications of Moulay Isamil University) no 3, 1993 (12).

37. Abdel-Aziz Benabdallah, Travels from and to Morocco in History, 82, 118.

38. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 85.

39. Z. Ikhwan, 13.

40. Z. Ikhwan, 13.

41. See footnote, no 35.

42. Mina Madini, The History of Revolutions in the Empire of Morocco after the Death of Sultan Mwlay Ismail. (Rabat : Mohamed V University, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Department of History, 1999-2000) 329.

43. Mina Madini, 17.

44. Z. Ikhwan, 12.

45. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 90.

46. Jabbor Douayhi, "European Travels and Travel Accounts to the East Until the End of the 18th Century," (in Arabic) Al-Fikr Al-Arabi), N° 32, April-June 1983 (58-69).

47. Magali Morsy, La Relation de Thomas Pellow. Une lecture du Maroc au 18è siècle. (Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilizations, 1983) 252 & illustrations.

48. Magali Morsy, 252.

49. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 95-97.

50. Roland Lebel, « Le Maroc dans les relations… », 294.

51. b. Abdallah, 125-126.

52. Ahmed Farouk, « Critique du livre de Lemprière par un témoin de l’époque », Hespéris Tamuda, Vol. 26-27, 1988-1989 (107).

53. Ahmed Farouk 107-108.

54. Ahmed Farouk 109-137.

55. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 134.

56. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais 134, 141.

57. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 134.

58. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 141-142.

59. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 142.

60. Gerald M. Ackerman, Les Orientalistes de l’école britannique, trans. Yves Thoraval (Paris, Courbevoie : ACR Edition Internationale, 1991) 315.

61, Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 147.

62. Lynne Thornton, Les Orientalistes peintres voyageurs. (French Translation by Jean de la Hogue.) (Tours : ACR Edition, 1994) 16.

63. A. Ben Abdallah, 84, 119.

64. A. Ben Abdallah, 88, 119.

65. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais,142.

66. Ackerman, Les Orientalistes de l’école britannique, 327-28.

67. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 146.

68. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais,142.

69. Khalid Bensghir, 19 (1856-1886) (Morocco and Great Britain in the 19th Century, 1856-1886.) (Group of Human Sciences: Wilada, Rabat. Mohammedia: Fedala Editions, 1990) 478.

70. A. Ben Abdallah, 112.

71. Bensghir, 12, 53.

72. Ackerman, 236.

73. L. Thornton, 158

74. A. Ben Abdallah, 119.

75. Ackerman, 315-316.

76. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 147.

77. Arthur Leared, Marocco and the Moors : Being an Account of Travels, with a General Description of the Country and Its People. 2nd edn. (London: Sampson Low, Marson, Searle, Rivington, 1891) xii-352.

78. Arthur Leared, 333.

79. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 145.

80. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 142.

81. Bensghir, 301.

82. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

83. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 143.

84. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 143.

85. Philip Durham Trotter, Our Mission to the Court of Marocco in 1880, Under Sir John Drummond Hay, K.C. B., Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to his Majesty the Sultan Illustrated from Photographs by the Hon. D. Lawless, Rifle Brigade. (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1881) xviii-310.

86. Philip Durham Trotter, 224.

87. Philip Durham Trotter, 292.

88. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 148.

89. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

90. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

91. A. Ben Abdallah, 110.

92. L. Thornton, 158-159.

93. Ackerman, 254-257.

94. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

95. Ibid., pp. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149-150.

96. Ackerman, 60-62.

97. Ackerman, 321-322.

98. Ben Abdallah, 108, 113.

99. P. G. Rogers, (Arabic Translation) 349.

100. Ben Abdallah, p. 117.

101. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

102. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais 150.

103. Wyndham Lewis, Journey into Barbary. Morocco Writings and Drawings, ed. C. J. Fox (Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press, 1983) 231. See also A. Ben Abdallah, 112.

104. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais 143.

105. W. Lewis, 231.

106. Sadik Rddad, "The Location of Agency : Hybridity and Renaissance in British Travel Accounts on Morocco," Moroccan Cultural Studies Journal (MCSJ), Vol. I, N° 1, Spring 1999 (98).

107. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais 143.

108. S. Rddad, "The Location of Agency", 94-95.

109. B. Rogerson, fn, 8.

110. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 149.

111. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 148.

112. Stephen Bonsal, Morocco as It is. With an Account of Sir Charles Euan Smith’s Recent Mission to Fez (London: Allen, 1893). Illus. Photographs. Index. Also London & New York editions, 1894. Quoted from Priscilla H. Roberts, "Nineteenth Century Tangier, Its American Visitors: Who they were, Why They Came and What They Wrote" in Tanger 1800-1956 : Contribution à l’histoire récente du Maroc (Rabat: Publications of the Universities of Mohamed V and Tangier: Abdelmalek Es-Saadi, 1991) 149-150.

113. Stephen Bonsal, 150.

114.Ackerman, 48.

115. L. Thornton, 36.

116. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais, 150.

117. Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, Mogreb-el-Acksa. A Journey in Morocco (1898) (Reprinted in New York, 1930. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern, 1997).

118. R. B. C. Graham, 122-123.

119. R. B. C. Graham, xii.

120. B. Rogerson, "Through a Glass darkly… ".

121. W. Lewis, 231.

122. Roland Lebel, Le Maroc chez les auteurs anglais,140, 147, 152. Roland Lebel also reports that Budgett Meakin says in The Moorish Empire: "French writers realise more fully than those of other nations all that lies behind the word Morocco, and during the present century they have produced the most important works." (157).

123. Sadik Rddad, "The Location of Agency", 92, 97.

124. Sadik Rddad, "The Location of Agency", 93, 97.

125. Ben Abdallah, 89, 107.

126. Colonial Discourses, Series One: Women, Travel and Empire, 1660-1914. Part 4: "Women, the Americas and World Travel." (25 reels of silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide) 2001, in

127. Ben Abdallah, 90, 114.

128. Ackerman, 144, 149.

129. Ben Abdallah, 90, 109.

130. L. Thornton, 330.

131. Wyndham Lewis, 231.

132. Ben Abdallah, 103.

133. Wyndham Lewis.

134. C. J. Fox, "Introduction", in Wyndham Lewis, ix.

135. C. J. Fox, xvi.

136. Ackerman, 32, and Thornton, 118-119.

137. Ben Abdallah, 106.

138. Ben Abdallah, 114.

139. Ben Abdallah, 92, 120.

140. Ruppert Furno, Abdelkrim, the Emir of the Riff. Translated into Arabic by Fouad Ayyoub, Damascus: Dar Dimashq, no date) 90-105.

141. Ackerman, 150-155.

142. Ben Abdallah, 93, 115.

143. Peter Mayne, A Year in Marrakech, 1953. First published as The Alleys of Marrakech (London: Eland, 1990).

144. Robin Bryans, Morocco: Land of the Farthest West (London: Faber and Faber, 1965) 232.

145. B. Rogerson, "Through a glass darkly" op.cit.